How is it treated?
Shigellosis is usually treated with antibiotics. But some types of Shigella bacteria are not killed by antibiotics. This is called resistance. Because using antibiotics can make these bacteria even more resistant, mild cases of shigellosis are often not treated with antibiotics. In this case, shigellosis is treated by managing complications until it passes. Dehydration caused by diarrhea is the most common complication. Do not use medicines to prevent diarrhea.
To prevent dehydration, take frequent sips of a rehydration drink (such as Pedialyte). Try to drink a cup of water or rehydration drink for each large, loose stool you have. Soda and fruit juices have too much sugar and not enough of the important electrolytes that are lost during diarrhea, and they should not be used to rehydrate.
Try to stay with your normal diet as much as possible. Eating your usual diet will help you to get enough nutrition. Doctors believe that eating a normal diet will also help you feel better faster. But try to avoid foods that are high in fat and sugar. Also avoid spicy foods, alcohol, and coffee for 2 days after all symptoms have disappeared.
How can you prevent shigellosis?
You can help prevent the spread of shigellosis by washing your hands frequently and carefully with soap, especially if you work or spend time in day care centers or with children who are not completely toilet trained. When possible, keep young children with shigellosis who are still in diapers away from uninfected children.
If your child is in diapers and has shigellosis, after diaper changing, wipe the changing area with a disinfectant such as diluted household bleach and put the diapers in a closed-lid garbage can. Then wash your hands with soap and warm water.
People who have shigellosis should not prepare food or pour water for others. Shigella are present in the diarrhea of people with shigellosis and for 1 or 2 weeks after symptoms have stopped.
Does shigellosis have any complications?
After shigellosis, it may take months before your bowel movements are completely normal again. But people with diarrhea usually recover completely.
A small number of people who are infected with one type of shigella bacteria, Shigella flexneri, will later develop pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes, and painful urination. This is called Reiter's syndrome. It can last for months or years and can lead to chronic arthritis.