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Salmonella Outbreak Affecting More People

What Can You Do to Prevent Salmonella Poisoning?

WebMD Health News

Aug. 2, 2004 -- Health officials are reporting that the number of people affected by a recent salmonella outbreak continues to climb. What can you do to prevent salmonella food poisoning?

Last year, a hepatitis outbreak in the U.S. was caused by tainted green onion from Mexico. Officials have linked this year's food poisoning outbreak from salmonella to certain Roma tomatoes. So far no deaths have been reported.

What Is Salmonella?

Salmonellosis is an infection caused by salmonella bacteria. Salmonella infections are increasing in the U.S. Many types of this bacteria cause disease in animals and people. Recently, a new strain of salmonella was found in the U.S. which poses a major new threat because it is resistant to several antibiotics normally used to treat people with salmonella infections.

Salmonellosis may occur in small, contained outbreaks in the general population or in large outbreaks in hospitals, restaurants, or institutions for children or the elderly. While the disease is found worldwide, health experts most often report cases in North America and Europe.

Every year, CDC receives reports of 40,000 cases of salmonellosis in the U.S. The agency estimates that 1.4 million people in this country are infected, however, and that 1,000 people die each year with salmonellosis. Symptoms are most severe in the elderly, infants, and people with weakened immune systems. People with AIDS are particularly vulnerable to salmonellosis -- often suffering from recurring episodes. In this group, salmonella infections can be fatal.

Salmonella Transmission

Salmonella bacteria can be found in food products such as raw poultry, eggs, and beef, and sometimes on unwashed fruit. Food prepared on surfaces that previously contained raw meat or meat products can, in turn, become contaminated with the bacteria. This is called cross-contamination.

In the past few years, CDC has received reports of several cases of salmonellosis from eating raw alfalfa sprouts grown in contaminated soil. Salmonella infection frequently occurs after handling pets, particularly reptiles such as snakes, turtles, and lizards.

Salmonellosis can become a chronic infection in some people who may not have symptoms. Though they may have no symptoms, infected people can spread the disease by not washing their hands before preparing food for others. In fact, health care experts recommend that people who know they have salmonellosis not prepare food or pour water for others until laboratory tests show they no longer carry salmonella.

Salmonella has several distinct symptoms:

  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Headache

In most people, symptoms begin from 12 hours to three days after being infected. These symptoms, along with possible nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting, usually last for four to seven days. Diarrhea can be severe and require hospitalization. The bacteria usually infect the intestines however it can also infect the blood and produce more severe and life-threatening symptoms such as infection of the heart valves or blood vessels.

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