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The Sweet Stuff continued...

 

Studies can be misleading, though, says Vinson, as researchers typically give subjects high doses of cocoa. "We don't know if lower doses work," he says.

 

In the same vein, health experts warn against eating too much chocolate as it is usually packed with calories and saturated fat.

 

If you indulge yourself or a loved one in the cocoa treat, eat a small amount. Cynthia Sass, RD, spokeswoman for the ADA, recommends buying more expensive chocolate, but less of it. "With rich chocolate, it doesn't take much to be satisfied," she says, noting that people who take time to savor, and let the candy melt in their mouth, tend to be more content with smaller servings.

Heartwarming Toast

Wining and dining has long been a Valentine's Day tradition for sweethearts, and now there may be more reason to clink glasses.

 

For people who drink a moderate amount of red wine, there's a heart health benefit. Research has shown that the flavonoids in red wine -- originally from grape skins -- have an antioxidant effect, may raise good cholesterol levels and may help prevent blood clotting in vessels.

 

Other, more controversial findings reveal that not just red wine, but moderate amounts of alcohol in general, wards against cardiovascular disease.

 

"Alcohol has a blood-thinning effect, and that was what was found to be effective against stroke and heart disease," says Sass.

 

Yet the studies on different types of alcohol have been small, and don't show as much effect on increasing good cholesterol, says Holly Novak, MD, director of prevention and women's health at Prairie Cardiovascular in Springfield, Ill.

 

Additionally, Vinson says alcohol can also produce free radicals, which are bad for the liver, counteracting any antioxidant benefits. The only exception, he says, is red wine in moderation.

 

All the health professionals interviewed by WebMD warn against excessive drinking, or encouraging nondrinkers to start drinking. Alcohol consumption can raise the risk of liver problems, high blood pressure, obesity, breast cancer, suicide, and accidents.

 

Women of childbearing age are also encouraged not to drink, as alcohol can harm the growth and development of an unborn child. By the time women who drink heavily find out they're pregnant "the damage could already be done," says Sass, who recommends sparkling grape juice, or dark-red grape juice with sparkling water as alternatives to red wine.

 

For people that choose to drink alcohol, the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends one to two drinks per day for men, and one drink for women. A drink is equivalent to 12 ounces of beer, 4 ounces of wine, 1.5 ounces of 80-proof spirits, or 1 ounce of 100-proof spirits.

 

Overall, experts don't recommend red wine or any other alcohol as a first line of defense against heart disease.

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