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Protein, Vitamins, & Minerals
- Proteins function as building blocks for bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood. They are also building blocks for enzymes, hormones, and vitamins. Proteins are one of three nutrients that provide calories (the others are fat and carbohydrates).
- B vitamins found in this food group serve a variety of functions in the body. They help the body release energy, play a vital role in the function of the nervous system, aid in the formation of red blood cells, and help build tissues.
- Vitamin E is an antioxidant that helps protect vitamin A and essential fatty acids from cell oxidation.
- Iron is used to carry oxygen in the blood. Many teenage girls and women in their childbearing years have iron-deficiency anemia due to loss of blood during their menstrual period.
- Magnesium is used in building bones and in releasing energy from muscles.
- Zinc is necessary for biochemical reactions and helps the immune system function properly.
- Diets that are high in saturated fats raise LDL "bad" cholesterol levels. High LDL cholesterol, in turn, increases the risk for heart disease. Some food choices in this group are high in saturated fat. These include fatty cuts of beef, pork, and lamb; regular (75% to 85% lean) ground beef; regular sausages, hot dogs, and bacon; some luncheon meats such as regular bologna and salami; and some poultry such as duck.
- Diets that are high in cholesterol can also raise LDLcholesterol levels in the blood. Cholesterol is only found in foods from animal sources. Foods in this group that are high in cholesterol include egg yolks (egg whites are cholesterol-free) and organ meats such as liver and giblets.
- A high intake of fats makes it difficult to avoid eating more calories than are needed.