What Is Genital Herpes?
Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease
(STD) caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV-type 1 commonly causes
fever blisters on the mouth or face (oral herpes), while HSV-type 2 typically
affects the genital area (genital herpes). However, both viral types can cause
either genital or oral infections. Most of the time, HSV-1 and HSV-2 are
inactive, or "silent," and cause no symptoms, but some infected people
have "outbreaks" of blisters and ulcers. Once infected with HSV, people
remain infected for life.
How Is Genital Herpes Spread?
HSV-1 and HSV-2 are
transmitted through direct contact, including kissing, sexual contact (vaginal,
oral, or anal sex), or skin-to-skin contact.
Genital herpes can be
transmitted with or without the presence of sores or other symptoms. It often
is transmitted by people who are unaware that they are infected, or by people
who do not recognize that their infection can be transmitted even when they
have no symptoms.
How Common Is Genital Herpes?
Results of a recent,
nationally representative study show that genital herpes infection is common in
the United States. Nationwide, 45 million people ages 12 and older, or one out
of five of the total adolescent and adult population, is infected with
HSV-2 infection is more
common in women (approximately one out of four women) than in men (almost one
out of five). This may be because male to female transmission is more efficient
than female to male transmission. HSV-2 infection is also more common in blacks
(45.9%) than in whites (17.6%). Race and ethnicity in the United States are
risk markers that correlate with other more fundamental determinants of health
such as poverty, access to quality health care, health-care seeking behavior,
illicit drug use, and living in communities with high prevalence of
Since the late 1970s, the
number of Americans with genital herpes infection (i.e., prevalence) has
increased 30%. Prevalence is increasing most dramatically among young white
teens; HSV-2 prevalence among 12- to 19-year-old whites is now five times
higher than it was 20 years ago. And young adults ages 20 to 29 are now twice
as likely to have HSV-2.
Is Genital Herpes Serious?
HSV-2 usually produces mild
symptoms, and most people with HSV-2 infection have no recognized symptoms.
However, HSV-2 can cause recurrent painful genital ulcers in many adults, and
HSV-2 infection can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems.
Regardless of severity of symptoms, genital herpes frequently causes
psychological distress among people who know they are infected.
In addition, HSV-2 can
cause potentially fatal infections in infants if the mother is shedding virus
at the time of delivery. It is important that women avoid contracting herpes
during pregnancy, because a first episode during pregnancy creates a greater
risk of transmission to the newborn. If a woman has active genital herpes at
delivery, a cesarean-section delivery is usually performed. Fortunately,
infection of an infant is rare among women with HSV-2 infection.
In the United States, HSV-2
may play a major role in the heterosexual spread of HIV, the virus that causes
AIDS. Herpes can make people more susceptible to HIV infection, and can make
HIV-infected individuals more infectious.