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3. Calcium

All adults need calcium. Without enough calcium, we risk osteoporosis and bone fractures. But calcium builds more than just bones. It's also important to our nerves and muscles.

How much you need: All adults aged 19 to 50 should get 1,000 mg of calcium daily. The requirement goes up to 1,200 mg a day for women over 50 and for all adults over 70.

How to get it:  Dairy products such as milk and yogurt are sources of calcium. But Giancoli says that many non-dairy milks, such as soy and almond milk, are now often fortified with calcium.

Many brands of orange juice are also fortified with calcium. Check the label.

Salmon, kale, turnip greens, and some kinds of tofu are other good dietary sources of calcium.

4. Fiber

Fiber in foods helps your digestive system and may lower your risk of heart disease and diabetes. But the average American diet isn't rich in fiber.

How much you need: Women should get 25 grams of fiber per day, and men 38 grams a day, but most people only get about 15 grams.

How to get it: Beans! Legumes are some of the best sources of dietary fiber. Some beans you can try:

  • Navy
  • White
  • Lima
  • Pinto
  • Black

Most vegetables and fruits are also good fiber sources. So are whole-grain breads and pastas.