The Letter (and Spirit) of Drug Import Laws
It's illegal (nudge, nudge) to buy prescriptions drugs (wink, wink) from other countries.
Don't Ask, Don't Tell
When it comes to the importation of drugs from foreign countries, the FDA acts a bit like Captain Renault in Casablanca who tells Rick that "I am shocked, shocked to find that gambling is going on in here!" as he gambles in Rick's club.
Here's how the FDA puts it in a consumer advisory on its web site:
"Don't purchase from foreign web sites at this time because generally it will be illegal to import the drugs bought from these sites, the risks are greater, and there is very little the U.S. government can do if you get ripped off."
And there's the rub: the words "generally" and "at this time." Under current law, stated in an FDA "guidance" paper titled "Coverage of Personal Importations," the importation or interstate shipment of unapproved new drugs is prohibited. The definition of "unapproved" includes "foreign-made versions of U.S. approved drugs that have not received FDA approval to demonstrate they meet the federal requirements for safety and effectiveness. It is the importer's obligation to demonstrate to the FDA that any drugs offered for importation have been approved by FDA."
Under those rules, it appears to be illegal to import into the U.S. the cholesterol-lowering drug Lipitor purchased in Canada, even though the drug is made in Ireland for shipment to both the U.S. and Canada. To make things even more confusing, the FDA guidance cites "circumstances in which FDA may consider exercising enforcement discretion and refrain from taking legal action against illegally imported drugs."
These extenuating circumstances include importing an unapproved drug for a serious condition for which there may be no effective treatment available in the U.S. But the drug can't be marketed to U.S. citizens by distributors of the drug in question, the product can't be considered to "represent an unreasonable risk," and the patient doing the importing has to be ready to affirm in writing that the drug is for his/her own use. The patient also has to be willing to furnish contact details for a physician in the U.S., or provide "evidence that the product is for the continuation of a treatment begun in a foreign country."