What's the secret to a longer-than-average lifespan?
May 29, 2000 -- Lily Hearst is nearly 103 years old. All her life she has been healthy and active -- skiing, skating, canoeing. The Berkeley, Calif., centenarian makes it a point to swim every day. She also continues to teach piano, to advanced students only, at the senior center where she eats lunch each day.
Hearst is among the unprecedented number of people now living to 100 and beyond, many of them in startlingly good health. At the end of the 19th century, when she was born, about one in 100,000 Americans was 100 or more years old. Today, the figure is one in 8,000 to 10,000 and climbing. And for each of these centenarians, there are many people in their 70s, 80s, and 90s who retain a level of vigor that defies all stereotypes of the elderly. (See Let the Senior Games Begin.)
Who can expect to blow out 100 candles someday? "To live to the 100s," says Thomas Perls, MD, MPH, "I would wager you need what I call genetic booster rockets." Perls, acting chief of gerontology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston and assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, is the founder and director of the ongoing New England Centenarian Study (NECS), and a co-author of Living to 100: Lessons in Living to Your Maximum Potential at Any Age.
The NECS, a series of ongoing studies, is an effort to explore longevity predictors by tracking the health habits of scores of people who are age 100 and above.
Gaining an Extra 10 Years
Based on findings from the study so far, Perls says it may require an exceptional genetic edge to live to 100. But most of us ought to be able to live into our mid 80s, nearly 10 years longer than the current average lifespan of 77 years in the United States and other industrialized countries.
So why the decade of difference between our genetic allowance and our actual average lifespan? Blame most of it on our bad habits.
Smoking, for instance, increases dramatically the risk of cancer, hardening of the arteries, and heart disease. Many people eat a terrible diet, downing gobs of hydrogenated fats that weren't even around to tempt today's centenarians in their youth. Excess intake of these hydrogenated fats increases the risk of hardening of the arteries and heart disease. Half the population is overweight, which increases the risk of heart problems and other ailments.
Only 10% to 15% of people over 65 exercise regularly, says Perls, leading to an increased risk of osteoporosis, depression, and other health problems and an unnecessary loss of healthy years.