When a senior is sick or recovering from an injury, it's important for them to eat a healthy diet. Getting enough calories from nutritious foods can help their recovery. It will help their bodies heal and give them the mental and physical energy they need.
"The most important thing is to ensure that their immune system is working at its best," says Madeleine Glick, MS, RD, a dietitian at Greenwich Woods, a long-term care facility in Greenwich, Conn.
For a small but growing number of people, that question is more than hypothetical. The number of centenarians -- people who are 100 years or older -- in the United States has grown 60% since 1990, to about 61,000 people, and will continue to increase in coming decades, according to the Census Bureau. In another 10 years, the number will more than double to over 130,000 people, and it's expected to double yet again to 274,000 in 2025.
Illness Not Always Typical
"Research on centenarians is challenging myths about aging, such as that the older you get, the sicker you have to be," says Thomas Perls, MD, a geriatrician and director of the New England Centenarian Study at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
Perls and others who are studying the lives of centenarians have found that many have avoided the common chronic illnesses and diseases associated with old age, such as cancer, heart disease, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease.
"Many were relatively healthy well into their 90s. About 15 percent live independently, and about 30 percent are cognitively intact, with the rest displaying a range of mild to severe cognitive impairments," says Perls.
Although centenarians are extraordinary examples of how one can live a long, healthylife, says Perls, "we believe that the vast number of people have genes that will allow them to live to at least 85 years old. People who take appropriate preventive steps may enjoy as many as 10 additional quality years."
The New England Centenarian Study -- which includes more than 200 people in and around the Boston area -- is the subject of a recent book by Perls and two colleagues, "Living to 100: Lessons in Living to Your Maximum Potential at Any Age."
Better Health Habits
Besides their ability to resist disease -- perhaps due to good genes -- centenarians tend to have good health habits. Leonard W. Poon, PhD, director of the Georgia Centenarian Study at the University of Georgia in Athens, says his center's studies show centenarians remained active throughout their lives and smoked, drank, and ate less than other people.