Why are seniors being left out of clinical studies?
April 3, 2000 -- (Great Falls, Mont.) -- A mammogram revealed a small cancerous tumor in Opal Addison's breast, and she opted for a lumpectomy. When her oncologist recommended that she enroll in a clinical trial of an experimental drug to prevent further cancer, Addison (not her real name) readily agreed. She did it to help herself and possibly others. ''If I was 21, I probably wouldn't do it,'' says the 70-year-old Illinois woman. ''But now, if I can help anybody, I'm glad to.''
Now completing the first year of the five-year study, she takes a daily pill, visits her doctor for blood tests every three months, and has a mammogram every six. So far, she's been free of side effects such as nausea or night sweats, which she says would have to be ''pretty severe before I would drop out."
When Nancy Levitt's mother was first diagnosed with dementia 14 years ago at age 78, the doctor told her she could safely drive to familiar places. But Levitt, 61, who volunteers at UCLA's Center on Aging in Los Angeles, was still nervous. Unexplained nicks and dents started appearing on her mother's car. She forgot where she parked. Levitt tried to discuss driving safety with her mother, but she angrily denied there was a problem. Then, she would forget their talks about driving altogether.
Older volunteers can help increase overall knowledge about the effectiveness of cancer drugs. But patients older than 65 are woefully underrepresented in cancer treatment trials, according to a study published in the December 30, 1999 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
The Scope of the Problem
Oncologist Laura Hutchins, M.D., of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock, led the study that looked at 16,396 patients enrolled in 164 cancer treatment trials. Only 25% were older than 65, even though 63% of all cancer patients are in that group. When it comes to breast cancer in particular, only 9% of the patients in clinical trials were past 65 -- though half of all cancer cases occur in women that age and older.
Complicating the issue, health experts predict a "pandemic'' of cancer as baby boomers age. ''When that happens, we're going to be totally unprepared for dealing with cancer in the elderly," says medical oncologist Charles Coltman, MD, of the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio, and another study co-author.
It's not enough, experts say, to study cancer treatment drugs in the young. Aging immune systems and organs affect the way drugs are absorbed and eliminated. Many elderly patients already take medications for diseases such as high blood pressure that could interfere with the needed new treatments. And sometimes cancers run a different course in elderly patients.