Mary Parker of Oak Ridge, Tenn., is quick to joke about her health problems.
Her vibrant smile and upbeat attitude belie her 78 years. But last year she had
a health problem she didn't find amusing. The medication she took for her
swollen sinuses left her so weak and dizzy she couldn't get out of bed.
"I felt like I wanted to die," she remembers. "It was
Getting adequate nutrition may be trickier for older adults. Because seniors tend to be less active than younger people, they need fewer calories. Yet research shows that older people may need more of certain key nutrients, such as B vitamins and calcium.
Unfortunately, nutrient deficiencies and malnutrition can persist for a long time before they show up in physical signs or symptoms. Still, there are a few indicators you -- and your doctor -- can watch for.
She learned an important lesson from the episode. She thinks twice before
taking any medication, questions her doctors and pharmacists, and reviews all
her medications regularly with her primary physician.
Parker's attitude is a good one for older adults to have, experts say. As
people age, they often develop a number of problems taking medications. Being
aware that problems may occur is the first way to minimize them.
"You are a partner in your health care," urges Madeline Feinberg,
Pharm.D., a pharmacist and former director of the Elder Health program of the
University of Maryland School of Pharmacy. "This is a partnership between
you, your doctor, and your pharmacist. You need to be assertive and
knowledgeable about the medications you take."
The Food and Drug Administration is working to make drugs safer for older
adults, who consume a large share of the nation's medications. Adults over age
65 buy 30 percent of all prescription drugs and 40 percent of all
"Almost every drug that comes through FDA [for approval] has been
examined for effects in the elderly," meaning people over 65, says Robert
Temple, M.D., director of one of FDA's offices of drug evaluation. "If the
manufacturer hasn't done a study that includes the elderly, we would usually
ask for it."
More than 15 years ago, the agency established guidelines encouraging drug
manufacturers to include more elderly patients in their studies of new drugs.
FDA suggested that upper age limits for drugs be eliminated, and that even
patients who had other health problems be allowed to participate if they are
able. Also, drugs known to pass primarily through the liver and kidneys should
be studied in patients with malfunctions of those organs. This has a direct
benefit for older adults, who are more likely to have abnormalities of liver or
kidney function and other illnesses.
In several surveys, FDA discovered that drug manufacturers had been using
older adults in their drug studies; however, they weren't examining that age
group for different reactions to the drugs. Now, they do. Today, new
prescription drugs are generally required to have a section in the labeling
about their use in the elderly.
Says Temple, "The FDA has done quite a bit and worked fully with
academia and industry to change drug testing so that it does analyze the data
from elderly patients. We're quite serious about wanting these analyses."
In 1999, these analyses became a regulatory requirement.