Keep your blood pressure low. In heart failure, the release of hormones causes the blood vessels to constrict or tighten. The heart must work hard to pump blood through the constricted vessels. It is important to keep your blood pressure controlled so that your heart can pump more effectively without extra stress.
Monitor your own symptoms. Check for changes in your fluid status by weighing yourself daily and checking for swelling. Call your doctor if you have unexplained weight gain (3 pounds in one day or 5 pounds in one week) or if you have increased swelling.
Maintain fluid balance. Your doctor may ask you to keep a record of the amount of fluids you drink or eat and how often you go to the bathroom. Remember, the more fluid you carry in your blood vessels, the harder your heart must work to pump excess fluid through your body. Limiting your fluid intake to less than 2 liters per day will help decrease the workload of your heart and prevent symptoms from recurring.
Limit how much salt (sodium) you eat. Sodium is found naturally in many foods we eat. It is also added for flavoring or to make food last longer. If you follow a low-sodium diet, you should have less fluid retention, less swelling, and breathe easier.
Monitor your weight and lose weight if needed. Learn what your "dry" or "ideal" weight is. Dry weight is your weight without extra water (fluid). Your goal is to keep your weight within 4 pounds of your dry weight. Weigh yourself at the same time each day, preferably in the morning, in similar clothing, after urinating but before eating, and on the same scale. Record your weight in a diary or calendar. If you gain three pounds in one day or five pounds in one week, call your doctor. Your doctor may want to adjust your medications.
Monitor your symptoms. Call your doctor if new symptoms occur or if your symptoms worsen. Do not wait for your symptoms to become so severe that you need to seek emergency treatment.
Take your medications as prescribed. Medications are used to improve your heart's ability to pump blood, decrease stress on your heart, decrease the progression of heart failure, and prevent fluid retention. Many heart failure drugs are used to decrease the release of harmful hormones. These drugs will cause your blood vessels to dilate or relax (thereby lowering your blood pressure).
Schedule regular doctor appointments. During follow-up visits, your doctors will make sure you are staying healthy and that your heart failure is not getting worse. Your doctor will ask to review your weight record and list of medications. If you have questions, write them down and bring them to your appointment. Call your doctor if you have urgent questions. Notify all your doctors about your heart failure, medications, and any restrictions. Also, check with your heart doctor about any new medications prescribed by another doctor. Keep good records and bring them with you to each doctor visit.