Heart Disease and Cardiac Catheterization
Cardiac catheterization (also called cardiac cath or coronary angiogram) is an invasive imaging procedure that allows your doctor to "see" how well your heart is functioning. During the test, a long, narrow tube, called a catheter, is inserted into a blood vessel in your arm or leg and guided to your heart with the aid of a special X-ray machine. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter so that X-ray videos of your valves, coronary arteries, and heart chambers can be created.
Why Do I Need a Cardiac Cath?
Your doctor uses cardiac cath to:
At most medical centers, interventional, or treatment, procedures to open blocked arteries are performed after the diagnostic part of the cardiac cath is complete. Less commonly, the intervention is performed later as a separate procedure. Interventional procedures include balloon angioplasty and stent placement. Rarely, more complicated procedures, such as brachytherapy, atherectomy, rotoblation, and cutting balloon are done.
What Are the Risks Associated With Cardiac Cath?
A cardiac cath is generally safe. However, as with any invasive procedure, there are risks. Special precautions are taken to decrease these risks. Your doctor will discuss the risks of the procedure with you.
Risks of a cardiac cath are rare but can include:
- Bleeding around the point of puncture
- Abnormal heart rhythms
- Blood clots
- Allergic reaction to the dye
- Heart attack
- Perforation of a blood vessel
- Air embolism (introduction of air into a blood vessel, which can be life-threatening)
Be sure to ask your doctor any questions you may have before undergoing the procedure.
How Should I Prepare for a Cardiac Cath?
For a cardiac cath, most people will need to have a routine chest X-ray, blood tests, electrocardiogram, and urinalysis performed within two weeks beforehand.
You can wear whatever you like to the hospital. You will wear a hospital gown during the procedure.
Leave all valuables at home. If you normally wear dentures, glasses, or a hearing device, plan to wear them during the cardiac cath.
Your doctor or nurse will give you specific instructions about what you can and cannot eat or drink before the procedure.
Tell your doctor all of the medications you are currently taking, including herbal products and dietary supplements.
Ask your doctor what drugs should be taken on the day of your cardiac cath. You may be told to stop taking certain medications, such as Coumadin (a blood thinner), for a few days before the procedure.
If you have diabetes, ask your doctor how to adjust your diabetes drugs the day of your test.
Tell your doctor and/or nurses if you are allergic to anything, especially iodine, shellfish, X-ray dye, latex, or rubber products (such as rubber gloves or balloons) or penicillin-type medications.
You may or may not return home the day of your procedure. Bring items with you (such as a robe, slippers, and toothbrush) to make your stay more comfortable. When you are able to return home, arrange for someone to bring you home.