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Laboratory Tests for Heart Failure

Routine lab blood tests are important in the evaluation of people with heart failure. These tests can help identify causes of heart failure; whether other organs, such as the kidneys and liver, have been affected by the heart failure; or whether medicines, such as diuretics, have affected the normal electrolyte levels, such as sodium or potassium levels. The following lab tests may be done in people with signs or symptoms of heart failure.

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

A reduced red blood cell count (anemia) may mean that heart failure is caused or aggravated by a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. A very low blood count may be a sign that anemia is a contributing factor that is making your heart failure worse. Even if this is not the case, a low blood count can make your heart work harder and can be dangerous if you have severe heart failure. Knowing the white blood cell count can be helpful, because an elevated white count often indicates that you have an infection, which places additional stress on your heart.

Serum Creatinine

This test measures the level of a substance in the blood called creatinine. The creatine level can help determine how well the kidneys are working. Creatinine is excreted in the urine. High levels of creatinine may indicate that a kidney problem is responsible for fluid buildup in the body, not heart failure.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from urea. A BUN test helps estimate how well the kidneys are functioning. Severe heart failure can decrease kidney function. Several common heart failure medicines—particularly diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors—can also decrease kidney function.

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

A brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test measures the amount of the BNP hormone in your blood. BNP is made by your heart and tells how well your heart is working. Normally, only a low amount of BNP is found in your blood. However, if your heart has to work harder over a long period of time, such as from heart failure, the heart releases more BNP and the blood level of BNP will get higher. The BNP level may drop when treatment for heart failure is working.

Serum Albumin

Albumin is a protein in the body. Decreased levels of this protein may indicate that fluid buildup in the body is caused by an intestinal disorder (hypoalbuminemia), a liver problem, or kidney disease.

Thyroid Hormone Tests and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Test

Thyroid hormone measurements may be needed if you have a rapid, irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation), have evidence of thyroid disease, or are older than 65. Abnormal findings may be a sign that heart failure is caused or made worse by an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) or an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).

Urinalysis

Protein or red blood cells in the urine may indicate a kidney disorder.

Blood Glucose

A fasting blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose in your blood after you have not eaten for at least 8 hours. Glucose is a natural sugar in the body that is used for energy. High levels of glucose in the blood may indicate diabetes.

Lipid Panel

A lipid panel is a blood test that measures lipids—fats and fatty substances used as a source of energy in your body. Lipids include cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

Liver Function Tests

Liver function tests include a variety of tests that measure certain enzymes and other substances produced by the liver. If the levels of these substances are high, it may mean damage or disease in the liver. Heart failure may also cause fluid buildup in the liver, which also may cause elevated liver function test results. For more information, see the topics Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST).

Electrolytes

People with heart failure need to maintain the concentration of electrolytes in the blood (particularly sodium, potassium, and magnesium). This is especially true for people who take diuretics, which can lower sodium, magnesium, or potassium levels in the blood if the dose is too high. Other medicines such as ACE inhibitors, by contrast, can cause high potassium levels.

Your electrolytes should be checked regularly, particularly if your symptoms are changing or if your medicines are being adjusted.

Prothrombin Time (PT) and Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)

A PT or PTT test are blood tests that measure how long it takes blood to clot. These tests can be used to check for bleeding problems. PT is also used to check how medicine to prevent blood clots is working. A PT test may also be called an INR test.

Pregnancy Test

If you are a sexually active woman of childbearing age and have new symptoms of heart failure, your doctor may order a pregnancy test. Pregnancy can sometimes cause heart failure, and pregnancy and childbirth may be dangerous for a woman who has severe heart failure, particularly if the heart failure is caused by mitral valve stenosis or other obstructive heart disease.

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer Rakesh K. Pai, MD, FACC - Cardiology, Electrophysiology
Specialist Medical Reviewer Stephen Fort, MD, MRCP, FRCPC - Interventional Cardiology
Current as of March 12, 2014

WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: March 12, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

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