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Simple Breath Test Might Diagnose Heart Failure

Noninvasive method found accurate in small, early study

WebMD News from HealthDay

By Alan Mozes

HealthDay Reporter

MONDAY, March 25 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental breath test, designed to quickly identify patients suffering from heart failure simply by analyzing the contents of a single exhaled breath, has demonstrated promise in early trials, a team of researchers says.

The investigators stressed that their evaluation is based on a small group of participating patients, and that more extensive research will have to be done to confirm their initial success.

But by subjecting a patient's breath to a rigorous but fast analysis of the hundreds of so-called volatile organic compounds contained therein, the study team said it has so far been able to correctly diagnose heart failure among newly hospitalized patients with a 100 percent accuracy.

"Every individual has a breath print that differentiates them from other people, depending on what's going on in their body," explained study lead author Dr. Raed Dweik, a staff physician in the department of pulmonary, allergy and critical care medicine with the Respiratory Institute at Cleveland Clinic. "And that print can tell us a lot about a person, what they've been exposed to and what disease they have," he added.

"That's what makes the new field of breath testing so promising, because it is non-intrusive, so there is no risk involved," Dweik said. "And you can do it anywhere, in a clinic, in a hospital, anywhere."

The findings were published March 25 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

The study authors pointed out that the most common reason American patients are admitted to a hospital is when there is a suspicion of heart failure -- a tough-to-treat condition in which the heart's pumping action grows gradually weaker over time.

Currently, a diagnosis of heart failure comes from a variety of factors, according to the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. These include medical history and symptoms, and a physical exam in which a doctor will listen to a patient's heart and lung sounds, and check ankles, feet, legs and abdomen for signs of fluid buildup. Blood tests and an electrocardiogram can help confirm that heart failure exists.

In the new study, to gauge how well the noninvasive breath test could identify heart failure, the team collected exhaled breath samples from 41 patients who had been admitted as in-patients to the Cleveland Clinic.

Of those, 25 had been admitted with a primary diagnosis of "acute decompensated heart failure" while another 16 patients had shown no signs of heart failure but did have other cardiovascular issues. A single breath sample was obtained from each of the patients within 24 hours of admission, as well as from an additional 36 patients with acute decompensated heart failure as an independent point of comparison.

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