Family History of Heart Disease: A Definition
Jan. 29, 2001 -- If family history strongly increases risk of heart disease, it begs the question: What constitutes 'family history'? How many nuclear-family relatives jeopardize our own heart health? If your dad -- a smoker -- died of a heart attack at age 65, how does that affect your fate? What if both parents died of heart disease -- but not until they reached their 90s?
"It's not a black-and-white situation," says Edward Massen, MD, a cardiologist at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital/Texas Heart Institute in Houston. "I think what we're looking at is a spectrum of risk."
A parent with an early-age heart attack should be a red flag for you and your siblings, Massen tells WebMD. "If your father had a heart attack at age 40, that's different from a father with a heart attack at age 65 or a grandfather at 90." However, he adds, even late-age heart attacks in relatives might elevate your risk.
"The more family members you have with [blood vessel] problems, the closer they are related to you, and probably the younger the age when they had their problems -- those are the significant risk factors," says Massen.
"We define 'early heart attacks' as a man under age 55 or a woman under age 65," says Laurence Sperling, MD, director of preventive cardiology at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta.
If your first-degree relative -- father, mother, brother, sister -- had the heart attack, other details become important, Sperling tells WebMD. "We further try to define other risk factors: Was that person a smoker, diabetic? If the answer is 'no' to both of those, we ask about cholesterol problems," he says. "If there were none, then you -- simply because of family history -- definitely are at higher risk for heart problems. If you have multiple relatives who had early heart attacks, that increases the magnitude of risk."
The largest database for this research comes from Utah, where thousands of families were studied. "Family history was a potent risk factor," says Sperling. "Having a one-degree relative with a heart attack under age 55 increased risk by 33%; two relatives increased risk by 50%."