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    Apple-Shaped Obesity, Other Forms Equally Risky, Study Finds

    All Obesity Boosts Cardiovascular Risks, Researchers Say

    Obesity and Heart Disease: Study Results

    The findings contradict the widely held idea that people with apple-shaped obesity are at higher risk than others for heart attack and stroke, Di Angelantonio says.

    ''Either BMI [which measures general obesity] or waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio [a reflection of central obesity] have a similar association with the risk of cardiovascular disease," he says.

    They found, too, that if information on blood pressure and cholesterol is available, along with information on risk factors such as diabetes, those are enough to predict cardiovascular disease risk. "You don't need to measure anything else," he says.

    The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration Coordinating Centre is supported by grants from the British Heart Foundation, the U.K. Medical Research Council, and other sources.

    Di Angelantonio reports no disclosures, but some co-authors report serving as consultants or receiving lecture payments or research grants from pharmaceutical companies.

    Obesity and Heart Disease Prediction: Perspective

    Rachel Huxley, DPhil, associate professor at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis, wrote a commentary to accompany the report.

    The new research, she tells WebMD, hopefully will lay to rest which obesity measure is best for predicting risk. "It had been hypothesized that measures of central obesity such as waist and waist-hip ratio would be more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk than measures of global obesity (that is, BMI)," she says. This thinking developed, she says, because in some studies, central obesity measures were more strongly linked with such conditions as type 2 diabetes, which in turn can boost heart disease.

    The new research, she says, shows otherwise, suggesting that after adjusting for differences in age, gender, and smoking, ''there is very little difference between the three measures in terms of the strength of the relationship with cardiovascular disease."

    The message, she says, is to maintain a healthy body weight -- meaning a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9. Experts say disease risk increases when a woman's waist circumference is over 35 inches and a man's is over 40 inches. To reduce disease risk, a woman's waist-to-hip ratio (waist in inches divided by hips in inches) should be 0.8 or less, a man's 0.9 or less.

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