Type O is the most common blood type in the United States.
About 45% of whites, 51% of African-Americans, 57% of Hispanics, and 40% of Asians in the U.S. have the blood type, according to the American Red Cross.
The AB blood type is much rarer. Only 4% of whites and African-Americans, 2% of Hispanics, and 7% of Asians in the U.S. have it.
In their new analysis, Qi and colleagues combined findings from two large studies that followed nearly 90,000 adults for at least two decades.
Compared to people with type O blood:
People with the AB blood type were 23% more likely to develop heart disease.
People with blood type A had a 5% increased risk.
People with blood type B had an 11% increased risk.
Earlier studies suggest that the A blood type is linked to higher levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol, and that the AB blood type is tied to inflammation, which is also linked to heart disease.
The findings appear in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology.
Does Blood Type Impact Treatment?
It's not yet clear if people with different blood types respond differently to preventive treatments such as cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, blood pressure medications, and even lifestyle interventions such as diet and exercise.
The study's findings need to be confirmed, says preventive cardiologist Richard A. Stein, MD, director of the exercise and nutrition program at NYU’s Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.
“I actually don’t know the blood types of any of my patients, and I would imagine that most cardiologists will tell you the same thing,” he says. “Maybe this will prove to be useful in our assessments of how aggressively to treat patients, but we aren’t there yet.”
He, M., Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Aug. 14, 2012.
Lu Qi, MD, PhD, assistant professor of medicine, Harvard Medical School; assistant professor of nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.
Richard A. Stein, MD, professor of medicine, NYU Langone School of Medicine; director of the exercise and nutrition program, Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York.