Stomach Acid Drugs May Raise Pneumonia Risk
Risk From Acid-Suppressing Drugs Greatest in Frailest Patients
Oct. 26, 2004 -- Common but powerful stomach acid-suppressing drugs -- some available without prescription -- may raise your risk of pneumonia.
The risk is not huge. But the drugs work so well and so safely -- and are advertised so aggressively -- that they're among the most-used drugs in the U.S. With so many users, any risk would involve lots of people.
There seems to be one extra case of pneumonia among every 100 people who take acid-suppressing drugs for one year. The finding comes from researchers Robert J.F. Laheij, PhD, of the University Medical Center St. Radboud in Nijmegen, Netherlands. Laheij and colleagues report their findings in the Oct. 27 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association.
"These drugs are not as safe as everybody thinks," Laheij tells WebMD. "If it is not necessary for you to use them, don't. Keep in mind that these medicines can have serious side effects -- especially in more fragile patients who can have serious problems."
The researchers analyzed computerized medical records for some 500,000 Dutch patients. Those taking acid-suppressing drugs for heartburn and indigestion were four times more likely to have pneumonia than those who did not.
Since people taking these drugs tend to be less healthy, the researchers did a second, more meaningful analysis. They compared those still taking the drugs with those who used to take them but stopped. Current use of acid-suppressing drugs doubled the risk of pneumonia.
Who Needs Acid-Suppressing Drugs
The drugs in question are called proton pump inhibitors or PPIs. They block the chemical "pump" needed for stomach cells to make acid. The drugs include:
Also implicated in pneumonia risk to a lesser extent are the acid-fighting drugs called H2 receptor antagonists. They block a different step in the manufacture of stomach acid. These drugs include:
Acid-suppressing drugs work wonders for people who really need them, says David Peura, MD. Peura is spokesman for the American Gastroenterological Association and associate chief of gastroenterology at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.