Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Heartburn/GERD Health Center

Font Size

Acid-Reflux Drugs & Lower Levels of Vitamin B-12

Study found risk of deficiency rose with longer use, higher doses


Corley and his colleagues reviewed data on nearly 26,000 people who had been diagnosed with a vitamin B-12 deficiency and compared them to almost 185,000 people who didn't have a deficiency.

While 12 percent of people with a vitamin B-12 deficiency had taken PPIs for more than two years, 7.2 percent of those without a deficiency had taken the medications long-term.

Of those with a deficiency, 4.2 percent took an H2 blocker for two years or longer, while 3.2 percent of those without a deficiency took the drugs for two years or more.

The risk of developing a vitamin B-12 deficiency was 65 percent higher for the long-term PPI users and 25 percent higher for those taking H2 blockers, according to the study.

People who took higher doses were more likely to develop a vitamin B-12 deficiency. People who took an average of 1.5 PPI pills per day had almost double the risk of developing a deficiency compared to those who averaged 0.75 pills per day, the study found.

Women had a greater risk of deficiency than men, and people younger than 30 taking these medications had a greater risk of developing a deficiency than older people, according to the study.

The risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency decreases when you stop taking the medications, but doesn't disappear completely, Corley said.

The study's findings were published in the Dec. 11 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Although the study found an association between taking acid-reflux drugs long-term and having a higher risk of a B-12 deficiency, it didn't establish a cause-and-effect relationship.

If you're taking acid-suppressing medications, Corley said, "our study doesn't recommend stopping those medications, but you should take them at the lowest effective dose." And people shouldn't start taking vitamin B-12 supplements on their own, but should discuss it with their doctor, he said.

One expert had concerns about how frequently acid-suppressing drugs are used.

"This study found an adverse effect associated with taking these drugs," said Victoria Richards, an associate professor of medical sciences at the Frank H. Netter M.D. School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University, in Hamden, Conn. "It's also concerning that these drugs are used at such a high rate. Why do so many people have the need to suppress acid so much?"

The bottom line, Richards said, is that if you are having any symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency and you've been taking these medications, talk to your doctor about whether you should be tested for a deficiency. Tell your doctor if you've been taking over-the-counter acid-suppressing medications, so your doctor can properly evaluate your risk.

1 | 2

Today on WebMD

Woman eating pizza
How it starts, and how to stop it.
man with indigestion
Get lifestyle and diet tips.
woman shopping for heartburn relief
Medication options.
man with heartburn
Symptoms of both.
digestive health
Heartburn or Heart Attack
Top 10 Heartburn Foods
Is it Heartburn or Gerd
digestive myths
Extreme Eats
graphic of esophageal area