Understanding Hepatitis B
How Do I Know if I Have It?
When you’re first infected, the warning signs include:
- Jaundice. (Your skin or the whites of the eyes turn yellow, and your pee turns brown or orange.)
- Light-colored poop
- Fatigue that persists for weeks or months
- Stomach trouble like loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting
- Belly pain
Symptoms may not show up until 1 to 6 months after you catch the virus. You may not feel anything, and about a third of the people with this disease don’t. They only find out through a blood test.
How Is It Diagnosed?
If your doctor thinks you have it, he’ll give you a complete physical exam. He’ll also check to see if your liver is healthy. The diagnosis is made with blood tests that look for the hepatitis virus and cells that fight infection, called antibodies.
If your disease becomes chronic, your doctor might take a tissue sample from your liver, called a biopsy. This will tell him how severe your case is.
How Is It Treated?
If you think you’ve been exposed to the virus, get to a doctor within 2 weeks. He’ll give you a vaccine and a shot of hepatitis B immune globulin. This protein boosts your immune system and helps it fight off the infection.
If you do get sick, your doctor may put you on bed rest to help you get better faster.
You’ll have to give up things that can hurt your liver, like alcohol and acetaminophen. Check with your doctor before taking any other drugs, herbal treatments, or supplements. Some of them can harm this organ, too. Also, eat a healthy diet.
If the infection goes away, the doctor will tell you you’re an “inactive carrier.” After that, he may just watch you closely.
If the infection is active for longer than 6 months, he’ll tell you that you have “chronic active hepatitis B.” He may prescribe some of these medications to treat it.
Interferon alfa (Intron A, Roferon A, Sylatron). This medicine boosts your immune system. You take it as a shot for at least 6 months. It doesn’t cure the disease. It treats liver inflammation. Long-acting interferon, peginterferon alfa2a (Pegasys, Pegasys Proclick) can also help. This drug does have side effects. It can make you feel bad all over, depressed, and zap your appetite. It also lowers your white blood cell count, which makes it harder to fight off infection.
Lamivudine (3tc, Epivir, Epivir A/F, Epivir HBV, Heptovir). It comes as a liquid or tablet you take once a day. Most people don’t have a problem with it. But if you take it for a long time, the virus might stop responding to the drug.
Adefovir dipivoxil (Hepsera). This drug, which you take as a tablet, works well for people who don’t respond to lamivudine. High doses can cause kidney problems.
Entecavir (Baraclude). This is the newest drug for hepatitis B. You can take it as a liquid or tablet.
Tenofovir (Viread). This drug comes as a powder or tablet. If you take it, your doctor will check often to make sure it doesn’t hurt your kidneys.