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  1. American Public Health Association (2008). Viral hepatitis B. In Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 19th ed., pp. 284–293. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association

  2. American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Hepatitis B. In LK Pickering et al., eds., Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 28th ed., pp. 337–356. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. World Health Organization (2012). Hepatitis B fact sheet. Available online:

  4. Perrillo R (2010). Hepatitis B and D. In M Feldman et al., eds., Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 1287–1312. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

  5. Lok SFL, McMahon BJ (2009). Chronic Hepatitis B: Update 2009. Available online:

Other Works Consulted

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012). Updated CDC recommendations for the management of hepatitis B virus–infected health-care providers and students. MMWR, 61(RR03): 1–12.

  • Janssen, H (2005). Pegylated interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B: A randomised trial. Lancet, 365(9454): 123–129.

  • Lok SFL, McMahon BJ (2009). Chronic Hepatitis B: Update 2009. Available online:

  • Papatheodoridis GV, et al. (2008). Current treatment indications and strategies in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 14(45): 6902–6910.

  • Sorrell MF, et al. (2009). National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement: Management of hepatitis B. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(2): 104–110.

  • U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2009). Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnancy: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(12): 869–874.

  • Weinbaum CM, et al. (2008). Recommendations for identification and public health management of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. MMWR, 57(RR-08): 1–20. Also available online:

WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: June 04, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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