Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can trigger autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in a minority of patients. This means that the liver cells are damaged not only by the virus but also by the body's own immune system.
AIH triggers the body to attack its liver cells as if the liver cells were harmful foreign substances. Patients with a combination of HCV and autoimmune hepatitis may suffer from more debilitating symptoms than patients with HCV alone. Autoimmune hepatitis is associated with...
Never share needles. Intravenous drug users are at greatest risk of becoming infected with hepatitis C because many share needles. In addition to needles, the virus may be present in other equipment used with illicit drugs. Even sharing a straw or dollar bill when snorting cocaine could lead to hepatitis C transmission. Bleeding in the nasal passages frequently occurs when taking cocaine this way, and microscopic droplets may enter the straw and be passed on to the next user, even if they can't be seen.
Avoid direct exposure to blood or blood products. If you are a medical worker or health care provider, take precautionary measures to avoid coming into direct contact with blood. Any tools that draw blood in the workplace should be discarded safely or sterilized appropriately to prevent hepatitis C infection.
Don't share personal care items. Many items that we use on a daily basis will occasionally be exposed to blood. Often people will cut themselves while shaving, or their gums will bleed while brushing their teeth. Even small amounts of blood can potentially infect someone, so it is important not to share items such as toothbrushes, razors, nail and hair clippers, and scissors. If you are already infected with hepatitis C, make sure you keep your personal items, such as razors and toothbrushes, separate and out of reach from children.
Choose tattoo and piercing parlors carefully. Only use a licensed tattoo and piercing artist who follows appropriate sanitary procedures. A new, disposable needle and ink well should be used for each customer. If in doubt, inquire about their disposable products and sanitary procedures before getting a tattoo or piercing.
Practice safe sex. It is rare for hepatitis C to be transmitted through sexual intercourse, but there is greater risk of getting hepatitis C if you have a sexually transmitted disease, HIV, or multiple sex partners or if you engage in rough sex.
How Hepatitis C Is Not Spread
Hepatitis C is not known to spread by casual contact, kissing, hugging, breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils, coughing, or sneezing. If a mom’s nipples are cracked and bleeding, she should temporarily stop nursing until her nipples have healed. Then she can resume nursing.
Protecting the Blood Supply
One of the main problems with preventing hepatitis C transmission is that most people who are infected do not display symptoms initially. Many only find out when they have a blood test for an unrelated reason. Until relatively recently, this often resulted in infected blood and organs being used in transfusions and transplants.
As of July 1992, all blood and organ donations are screened for the hepatitis C virus. Although not perfect, only about 1 in 1.6 million blood transfusions may transmit hepatitis C. Anyone who received a blood transfusion or organ donation prior to July 1992 should be tested for the virus.
As of 1987, all blood products for the treatment of hemophilia are treated to remove infectious viruses, such as hepatitis C and HIV. If you took any blood products before 1987, however, you should be tested for hepatitis C.