To treat AIDS wasting syndrome, your doctor will use a variety of approaches.
To increase appetite or reduce nausea and vomiting, your doctor may suggest:
Megace (megestrol acetate), an appetite stimulant that is a synthetic form of progesterone. Megace may sometimes increase body fat and decrease release of hormones from sex glands (hypogonadism). For these reasons, some doctors don't recommend it.
Marinol (dronabinol) is a synthetic form of an active ingredient in marijuana. It is an appetite stimulant that can also reduce nausea, improve mood, and stabilize weight. It may cause drowsiness and dizziness. Insurance companies often do not pay for this medication.
Marijuana, which is legalized for medical purposes in only a few states. It can increase appetite, reduce nausea, and lessen pain. It has the same side effects as Marinol. It can also cause breathing problems such as bronchitis.
To lessen diarrhea, your doctor may:
Identify and treat opportunistic infections that affect the intestines.
Make adjustments in your HAART medications.
Suggest nutritional supplements to help make up for poor nutrient absorption. Ensure and Advera are two examples.
Suggest limiting fat, lactose, insoluble fiber (such as that found in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains), caffeine, alcohol, and concentrated sweets.
To improve changes in metabolism, researchers are studying a variety of approaches. These include:
Serostim (somatropin), a human growth hormone used to increase weight and lean body mass. Although approved by Medicaid, this hormone is expensive. It causes side effects such as high blood sugar levels and muscle and joint pain.
Testosterone and anabolic (muscle-building) steroids. Side effects include male infertility, irregular menstruation, and reduction in good cholesterol (HDL).
Thalomid (thalidomide), which can reduce levels of cytokines. This drug can cause muscle weakness and tingling, burning, or weakness in legs or arms.
Progressive resistance training (PRT) also can be helpful in increasing lean body mass. This involves gradually increasing weight, repetitions, or sets to improve strength.
New Mexico AIDS Education and Training Center: "AIDS Wasting," "Body Composition," and "Marijuana."
HIV Medicine: "Wasting Syndrome."
MedlinePlus: "Drugs, Supplements, and Herbal Information."