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HIV & AIDS Health Center

Medical Reference Related to HIV & AIDS

  1. HIV-2 - Topic Overview

    HIV-1 is the virus that causes almost all the cases of AIDS worldwide. A related virus,HIV-2,was first isolated in people in West Africa in 1986. Some people who are infected with HIV-2 appear to have an AIDS-like illness,but most do not have symptoms. You should be tested for HIV-2 infection if you: Are from West Africa and practice high-risk behaviors,such as having more than one sex ...

  2. HIV: Why Healthy Eating Matters - Topic Overview

    Eating a nutritious,balanced diet is an important part of treating HIV. Good nutrition can help your immune system stay strong,which in turn may help your body fight HIV. Knowing the best way to nourish your body will help keep it strong and allow your HIV medications to work effectively. It is important to maintain lean muscle mass while fighting HIV. Maintaining a healthy weight can be a ...

  3. HIV Symptoms in Children - Topic Overview

    HIV may be suspected in a child who has: Delays in growth or development. Enlargement of the liver and spleen. Persistent yeast infection of the mouth ( thrush ). Recurrent bacterial infections. Swollen lymph nodes in the neck,armpits,and groin. The symptoms of HIV can also be caused by other illnesses. ...

  4. HIV: Giving Support - Topic Overview

    It is important to think about the emotional well-being of the person with HIV you care for. Because every person's emotional needs are different,no single approach is best for everybody. Encourage the person to become involved in medical decisions that affect his or her care and daily schedules. Being involved will provide a sense of control and independence. Don't avoid the person. Like ...

  5. Pneumocystis Pneumonia and AIDS - Topic Overview

    Pneumocystis is a fungus that can sometimes cause pneumonia in people who have AIDS.Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. Pneumonia can make it hard to breathe and to get enough oxygen into the bloodstream. Symptoms often begin suddenly and may be similar to those of an upper respiratory infection, such as influenza or a cold. Common symptoms of pneumonia include:Fever of 100°F (38°C) to 106°F (41°C).Shaking chills.Cough that often produces colored mucus (sputum) from the lungs. Sputum may be rust-colored or green or tinged with blood. Older adults may have only a slight cough and no sputum.Rapid, often shallow breathing.Chest wall pain, often made worse by coughing or deep breathing.Fatigue and feelings of weakness (malaise).Your doctor may suggest an HIV test if you have not been diagnosed with HIV and Pneumocystis pneumonia is:Suspected on a chest X-ray.Detected in a test that evaluates sputum (thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the airways leading to the lungs).If you

  6. HIV Home Care - Topic Overview

    If a person's HIV infection progresses,you may be called on to provide home care for that person. A home care course may give you the knowledge,skills,and confidence to provide the care needed. Contact your local Red Cross chapter,Visiting Nurse Association,or AIDS service agency to find out about home care training offered in your area. When possible,get to know the person's doctor,...

  7. HIV & AIDS Guide - Topic Overview

    HIV does not survive well outside the body. HIV cannot be spread from one person to another in any of the following ways: Casual contact In studies of hundreds of households in which families have lived with and cared for people who have AIDS,including situations in which no one knew that the person was HIV-infected,HIV was spread only when there was sexual contact or needle-sharing with the ...

  8. HIV: Stages of Infection - Topic Overview

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classify HIV infection into four stages. 1 Stages of HIV infection Stage 1 : There are no AIDS -related conditions AND the CD4+ cell count is greater than 500 or the percent of CD4+ cells is at least 29% of all lymphocytes. Stage 2 : There are no AIDS-related conditions AND the CD4+ cell count is 200 to 499 or the percent of CD4+ cells ...

  9. CD4+ Cells - Topic Overview

    CD4+ cells are part of the immune system and are a type of white blood cell. White blood cells protect the body against infection. CD4+ cells are also called T-lymphocytes,T-cells,or T-helper cells. HIV invades and destroys CD4+ cells. But the body continues to produce new CD4+ cells to fight the HIV infection. If the infection is not treated with medications,the body gradually loses the ...

  10. HIV: Nonprogressors and HIV-Resistant People - Topic Overview

    A few people with HIV are described as nonprogressors. These people have HIV that does not progress to more severe symptoms or disease, but they can still spread HIV. Most nonprogressors:Have lived with the infection for 10 to 15 years and remained healthy. Do not have declining CD4+ cell counts.Have a very low level of HIV in their blood.A small number of people never become infected with HIV despite years of exposure to the virus. For example, they may have repeated, unprotected sex with an infected person. These people are said to be HIV-resistant. These people are never infected, so they can't spread HIV.Studies are under way to determine why some people either don't become infected with HIV or, if they do, why they don't develop symptoms or lose CD4+ cells. Research has shown that:Some people's CD4+ cells are relatively resistant to HIV. If HIV cannot attach itself to CD4+ cells, it cannot destroy them.Some people's immune systems may be better able to destroy the virus.Some

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