New HIV Guidelines Released by WHO
Guideline Recommendations continued...
The recommendation to consider PrEP an option for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men is both "valuable and important," said Robert Grant, MD, MPH. He's a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. Grant was involved in a study that showed that PrEP provides a high degree of protection against HIV infection, even if someone didn't take the medicine exactly as prescribed.
"I think the WHO recommendation reflects the high-quality evidence that PrEP provides protection for men who have sex with men," Grant said.
He cautioned, though, that people do go through "seasons of risk," and they might stop treatment if they no longer feel they need PrEP for HIV protection.
The other major recommendation is to make the medication naloxone available in the community to reverse an overdose. People likely to witness an opioid overdose should have access to naloxone and be taught how to use it in case of an emergency, the guidelines say.
Overdose Deaths and HIV
"We know that, worldwide, 69,000 individuals die from heroin or opioid overdose each year," said Phillip Read, MD. He's the medical unit manager at the Kirketon Road Centre in Sydney, Australia. "In fact, HIV-positive people who inject [opioids] and who are on treatment have a greater risk of dying from an overdose than from HIV." Also, about 60% of overdose deaths occur in the presence of someone else.
Naloxone rapidly reverses the toxic effects of heroin and some opioids, such as oxycodone. It can be given by injections or sprayed directly into the nostrils in aerosol form.
In a pilot project of people dependent on opioids, Australian investigators found that almost all people in their study had witnessed an overdose, and almost two-thirds had overdosed themselves. There is a "real opportunity" to intervene, Read said.
When the Australian group gave the study participants a supply of naloxone, about 20% used it to reverse an overdose within a year, Read told Medscape Medical News.
The recommendation from previous guidelines that people who inject drugs have access to sterile injecting equipment through needle-and-syringe programs remains.
"The importance of these programs in blood-borne virus prevention in people who inject cannot be overstated," Read said.
In Australia, a comprehensive needle-and-syringe program has been in place since the late 1980s. As a result, the prevalence of HIV in heterosexual people who inject drugs is below 1%.
It's been estimated that, since its inception, the needle-and-syringe program has prevented more than 50,000 new cases of HIV in Australia, and more than 100,000 cases of hepatitis C.
"We know that for every dollar spent on needle-and-syringe programs, over $4 is returned to the state in direct cost savings," Dr. Read said. "These programs are not only ethically and medically important, they are economically important as well."
The guidelines also recommend that all people from the groups at high risk for HIV who are dependent on opioids continue to have access to medicines that are substitutes for the opioids and control the addiction.