Central vision is the most important part of a person's vision; it is used to read, drive, and see pictures or faces. Good central vision allows a person to see shapes, colors, and details clearly and sharply.
An area of the retina (the lining of the back of the eye) called the macula provides central vision. Damage to the macula usually causes much more severe vision loss than damage to the rest of the retina, which provides side (peripheral) vision.
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise