High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading cause of kidney disease and kidney failure (end-stage renal disease).
Hypertension can cause damage to the blood vessels and filters in the kidney, making removal of waste from the body difficult. Once a person is diagnosed with end-stage renal disease, dialysis -- a blood-cleansing process -- or kidney transplantation are necessary.
About one in three adults in the U.S. have high blood pressure. More than 90% of adults who survive into their 80s will develop elevated blood pressure, also called hypertension.
Although high blood pressure is common, it's not harmless. High blood pressure is a major cause of atherosclerosis, the artery-clogging process that leads to heart attacks and strokes. Blood pressure higher than 140/90 is seen in:
69% of people who have their first heart attack
77% of people who have their first...
Decrease in amount of urine or difficulty urinating
Edema (fluid retention), especially in the lower legs
A need to urinate more often, especially at night
How Is Kidney Disease Diagnosed?
As with high blood pressure, you may not realize that you have kidney disease. Certain laboratory tests can indicate whether your kidneys are eliminating waste products properly. These tests include serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN); elevated levels of either can indicate kidney damage. Proteinuria, an excess of protein in the urine, is also a sign of kidney disease.
Who Is At Risk for Kidney Disease Due to High Blood Pressure?
Kidney disease caused by high blood pressure affects every group and race. However, certain groups are at higher risk, including:
Natives of Alaska
People who have diabetes
People with a family history of high blood pressure and kidney disease
How Can I Prevent Kidney Disease?
To prevent kidney damage from high blood pressure:
Try to keep your blood pressure controlled.
Make sure you get your blood pressure checked on a regular basis.
Eat a proper diet.
Get moderate exercise, such as walking, 30 minutes daily.
Take the medication your doctor prescribes.
How Is Kidney Disease Treated?
For patients who have high blood pressure and kidney disease, the most important treatment is to control your blood pressure through lifestyle changes. ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) drugs lower blood pressure and can protect the kidneys from further damage.