In the vast majority of cases, there are no clear symptoms of high blood pressure (also known as hypertension), which can lead to heart disease, stroke, kidney failure and eye problems if untreated. The only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to get your blood pressure checked on a regular basis. This is especially important if you have a close relative who has high blood pressure.
If your blood pressure is extremely high, there may be certain symptoms to look out for, including:
We know that starting as low as 115/75 mmHg, the risk of heart attack and stroke doubles for every 20-point jump in systolic blood pressure or every 10-point rise in diastolic blood pressure for adults aged 40-70.
Who Is at Risk for Prehypertension?
Nearly half of all adults older than age 18 have prehypertension or hypertension, as measured by average of two or more readings at two or more doctor's visits.
According to the American Heart Association, 59 million people in the U.S. have prehypertension.
Some populations across the globe have minimal rise in blood pressure with aging. In some parts of Mexico, the South Pacific, and other parts of the world, people have very low salt intake. In these areas, the age-related rise in blood pressure is small compared with the U.S.
Is There Treatment for Prehypertension?
Prehypertension is a warning sign. It means that you're at a greater risk of high blood pressure. Depending on your blood pressure and risk factors for heart disease, you may only need to make a few lifestyle adjustments. Here are some strategies to help you manage prehypertension:
Lose weight if you are overweight. Being overweight increases the risk of high blood pressure. However, losing weight can lower high blood pressure. Studies show that modest weight loss can prevent hypertension by 20% in overweight people with prehypertension.
Cut back on dietary salt/sodium. A diet high in sodium (salt) can increase blood pressure. A low-sodium diet can lower high blood pressure -- or prevent it. Aim for less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium daily (about 1 teaspoon of table salt).
Eat a plant-based or vegetarian diet. Add high-protein soy foods to your diet. Increase servings of fruits and vegetables by adding one serving at a time. You can add a serving of fruit at lunchtime. Then add a serving of vegetables at dinner.
Drink only in moderation. Drinking excess alcohol can increase blood pressure. Limit drinking to no more than two drinks a day for men, and one drink a day for women.