What is high blood pressure?
Blood pressure is a
measure of how hard the blood pushes against the walls of your arteries as it
moves through your body. It's normal for blood pressure to go up and down
throughout the day, but if it stays up, you have high blood pressure. Another
name for high blood pressure is hypertension.
When blood pressure
is high, it starts to damage the blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. This can
stroke, and other problems. High blood pressure is
called a "silent killer,'' because it doesn't usually cause symptoms while it
is causing this damage.
Your blood pressure consists of two
systolic and diastolic. Someone with a systolic
pressure of 120 and a diastolic pressure of 80 has a blood pressure of 120/80,
or "120 over 80." Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
- The systolic number shows how hard the blood
pushes when the heart is pumping.
- The diastolic number shows how
hard the blood pushes between heartbeats, when the heart is relaxed and filling
High blood pressure is 140/90 or higher. Adults should have a blood pressure of less than 120/80.
Many people fall into the category in
between, called prehypertension. People with prehypertension need to make
lifestyle changes to bring the blood pressure down and help prevent or delay
high blood pressure.1
About 1 out of 3 adults in the United States has high
What causes high blood pressure?
In most cases,
doctors can't point to the exact cause. But several things are known to raise
blood pressure, including being very overweight, drinking too much alcohol,
family history of high blood pressure, eating too much
salt, and getting older.
Your blood pressure may also rise if you
are not very active, you don't eat enough potassium and calcium, or you have a
What are the symptoms?
High blood pressure doesn't
usually cause symptoms. Most people don't know they have it until they go to
the doctor for some other reason.
Very high blood pressure
can cause headaches, vision problems, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms can
also be caused by dangerously high blood pressure called
malignant high blood pressure. It may also be called a
hypertensive crisis or hypertensive emergency. Malignant high blood pressure is
a medical emergency.
How is high blood pressure diagnosed?
find out that they have high blood pressure during a routine doctor visit. For your
doctor to confirm that you have high blood pressure, your blood pressure must
be at least 140/90 on three or more separate occasions. It is usually measured
1 to 2 weeks apart.
You may have to check your blood pressure at home if there is reason to think the readings in the doctor's office aren't accurate. You may have what is called
white-coat hypertension, which is blood pressure that
goes up just because you're at the doctor's office.