Infertility is when you cannot get pregnant after having unprotected, regular sex for six months to one year, depending on your age.
The main symptom of infertility is not getting pregnant. You may not have or notice any other symptoms.
Symptoms can also depend on what is causing the infertility. Many health conditions can make it hard to get pregnant. Sometimes no cause is found.
In studies conducted in Germany and published in the journal Fertility and Sterility, women enrolled in an infertility program underwent acupuncture treatments just prior to and just after an embryo transfer into the uterus -- the final step in an in vitro fertilization procedure.
The result: Compared to women who did not have the acupuncture treatment, those who did had a significantly higher rate of pregnancy -- 42.5% compared with 26.3% in the group not having acupuncture.
"I don't think we know if acupuncture actually reduces stress but it may help counterbalance some of the effects of stress on the reproductive system," says Grifo, who indicates that at least three studies thus far have proven its benefits on fertility.
Other studies have found that for some women, massage may hold another key to reducing infertility stress. In research published in the International Journal of Neuroscience in 2004, doctors found that massage therapy worked to decrease the body's physical signals of stress, including heart rate and brain waves.
And while it wasn't tested on infertility patients, Morgan feels so strongly that it will make a difference, he recently launched his own study to test the impact of lower body massage therapy on women undergoing infertility treatments,
"The first group is receiving a gentle form of massage therapy on their feet and legs just prior to either an insemination or an embryo transfer; the matched group is going straight into treatment without any stress-reducing therapy," says Morgan.
While he says it's still too early to predict results, he suspects the outcome may definitely favor massage therapy.
At Grifo's center at New York University, infertility patients are routinely referred to in-house programs that offer both guided imagery and foot reflexology, all in an effort to reduce stress.
"We're not studying it in a scientific way, but we offer it and we recommend it, and the women who become involved seem to feel better, and that's what matters most to us. If it helps the quality of life for patients seeking fertility treatments, that's a very big thing," says Grifo.