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Infertility & Reproduction Health Center

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Infertility and Testicular Disorders

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There are two primary disorders that affect the male reproductive external organs. These include penis disorders and testicular disorders. Disorders of the penis and testes can affect a man's sexual functioning and fertility.

The testicles, also called testes, are part of the male reproductive system. The testicles are two oval organs about the size of large olives. They are located inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. The testicles make male hormones, including testosterone, and produce sperm, the male reproductive cells. Problems with the testes can lead to serious illnesses, including hormonal imbalances, sexual problems, and infertility.

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What Disorders Affect the Testicles?

Some of the more common conditions that affect the testicles include testicular trauma, testicular torsion, testicular cancer, epididymitis, and hypogonadism.

What Is Testicular Trauma?

Because the testicles are located within the scrotum, which hangs outside of the body, they do not have the protection of muscles and bones. This makes it easier for the testicles to be struck, hit, kicked, or crushed, which occurs most often during contact sports. Males can protect their testicles by wearing athletic cups during sports.

Trauma to the testicles can cause severe pain, bruising, and/or swelling. In most cases, the testes -- which are made of a spongy material -- can absorb the shock of an injury without serious damage. A rare type of testicular trauma, called testicular rupture, occurs when the testicle receives a direct blow or is squeezed against the hard bones of the pelvis. This injury can cause blood to leak into the scrotum. In severe cases, surgery to repair the rupture -- and thus save the testicle -- may be necessary.

What Is Testicular Torsion?

Within the scrotum, the testicles are secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Sometimes, this cord gets twisted around a testicle, cutting off the blood supply to the testicle. Symptoms of testicular torsion include sudden and severe pain, enlargement of the affected testicle, tenderness, and swelling.

This condition, which occurs most often in men under the age of 25, can result from an injury to the testicles or from strenuous activity. It also can occur for no apparent reason.

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