Androgens are sometimes called "male hormones." Men have very high levels of androgens, which are responsible for male body changes like hair growth and muscle mass. In women, androgens are necessary to make estrogen. Women with PCOS have androgen levels in the "high normal" range (for women). The additional androgen in these women can cause excessive hair growth and acne.
Every family has that one kindly aunt and uncle who "never had any children." And, until you yourself have struggled with infertility, you probably never wondered why they had no children; you just accepted it. Well, if that aunt and uncle of yours are now seniors, in their day they could have adopted from a wide assortment of newborns. But they didn't. Today, they probably live comfortably in a small condo somewhere, travel a great deal, are enjoying their retirement, and dote on a large selection...
Excess androgen production also leads to irregular or absent ovulation, which women experience as irregular or absent menstrual periods. Because of the problems with ovulation, women with PCOS may have difficulty becoming pregnant.
The causes of PCOS are not completely understood, but it is likely an inherited condition.
What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?
Women with PCOS can have a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, from very mild to severe. They may include:
Irregular or absent menstrual periods.
Heavy vaginal bleeding; ovaries make progesterone for two weeks following ovulation. At the end of that two weeks, the progesterone level drops and the lining of the uterus sheds. This is a normal period. If a woman does not ovulate, she will not make progesterone. The lining of the uterus can become thick, the cells making up the lining can become crowded (a condition known as hyperplasia, which can lead to uterine cancer), and the woman can experience very heavy and prolonged bleeding.