Androgens are sometimes called "male hormones." Men have very high levels of androgens, which are responsible for male body changes like hair growth and muscle mass. In women, androgens are necessary to make estrogen. Women with PCOS have androgen levels in the "high normal" range (for women). The additional androgen in these women can cause excessive hair growth and acne.
Infertility is when you cannot get pregnant after having unprotected, regular sex for six months to one year, depending on your age.
The main symptom of infertility is not getting pregnant. You may not have or notice any other symptoms.
Symptoms can also depend on what is causing the infertility. Many health conditions can make it hard to get pregnant. Sometimes no cause is found.
Excess androgen production also leads to irregular or absent ovulation, which women experience as irregular or absent menstrual periods. Because of the problems with ovulation, women with PCOS may have difficulty becoming pregnant.
The causes of PCOS are not completely understood, but it is likely an inherited condition.
What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?
Women with PCOS can have a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, from very mild to severe. They may include:
Irregular or absent menstrual periods.
Heavy vaginal bleeding; ovaries make progesterone for two weeks following ovulation. At the end of that two weeks, the progesterone level drops and the lining of the uterus sheds. This is a normal period. If a woman does not ovulate, she will not make progesterone. The lining of the uterus can become thick, the cells making up the lining can become crowded (a condition known as hyperplasia, which can lead to uterine cancer), and the woman can experience very heavy and prolonged bleeding.