Nearly 80 out of 100 kidney stones (80%) are made of
calcium compounds, especially calcium oxalate.1 Calcium phosphate and other minerals also may be present.
Conditions that cause high calcium levels in the body, such as
hyperparathyroidism, increase the risk of calcium
stones. High levels of
oxalate also increase the risk for calcium
Kidney stones are created when certain substances in urine -- including calcium, oxalate, and sometimes uric acid -- crystallize. These minerals and salts form crystals, which can then join together and form a kidney stone.
Kidney stones usually form within the kidney, where urine collects before flowing into the ureter, the tube that leads to the bladder. Small kidney stones are able to pass out of the body in the urine -- and may go completely unnoticed by you. But larger stones irritate...
Certain medicines may prevent or dissolve uric acid stones.
About 10 to 15 out of 100 kidney stones (10% to 15%) are struvite stones.1 They can also be called infection stones if they occur with
urinary tract infections (UTIs). These types of kidney
stones sometimes are also called
staghorn calculi if they grow large enough.
Struvite stones can be serious, because they are often large stones
and may occur with an infection. Medical treatment, including antibiotics and
removal of the stone, is usually needed for struvite stones. Women are affected
more than men because of their higher risk of urinary tract infections.
Less than 1% of kidney stones (less than 1 out of 100) are made of a chemical called
cystine.1 Cystine stones are more likely to develop in
families with a condition that results in too much cystine in the urine
Cystine stones may be prevented or dissolved with medicine, but
this may be difficult and not very effective. If the stones cause blockage in
the urinary tract or are too large, then the stone will need to be removed.
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise
April 28, 2011
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor.
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