The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of the EvidenceAdded Spira et al. as reference 4.Added Lissowska et al. as reference 23.Added Straif et al. as reference 27.Added Gray et al. as reference 32.Added text evidence indicating an association between constituents of ambient air pollution and increased lung cancer mortality continues to strengthen, with reports from Asia and New Zealand documenting increased risks with exposure to measures of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide (cited Katanoda et al., Cao et al., and Hales et al. as references 37, 38, and 39, respectively).Added World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research as reference 40.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary
In occult lung cancer, a diagnostic evaluation often includes chest x-ray and selective bronchoscopy with close follow-up (e.g., computed tomography scan), when needed, to define the site and nature of the primary tumor; tumors discovered in this fashion are generally early stage and curable by surgery.After discovery of the primary tumor, treatment involves establishing the stage of the tumor. Therapy is identical to that recommended for other NSCLC patients with similar stage disease. Standard Treatment Options for Occult NSCLCStandard treatment options for occult NSCLC include the following:Surgery.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with occult non-small cell lung cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
BackgroundIn NSCLC, the determination of stage is important in terms of therapeutic and prognostic implications. Careful initial diagnostic evaluation to define the location and to determine the extent of primary and metastatic tumor involvement is critical for the appropriate care of patients. In general, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory findings, or perceived risk of distant metastasis lead to an evaluation for distant metastatic disease. Additional tests such as bone scans and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain may be performed if initial assessments suggest metastases or if patients with stage III disease are under consideration for aggressive local and combined modality treatments.Stage has a critical role in the selection of therapy. The stage of disease is based on a combination of clinical factors and pathological factors. The distinction