Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence
BackgroundIncidence and mortalityLung cancer is the most commonly occurring noncutaneous cancer in men and women combined in the United States and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. In 2013 alone, it is estimated that there will be 228,190 new cases diagnosed, and 72,220 women and 87,260 men will die from this disease. The lung cancer death rate rose rapidly over several decades in both sexes, with a persistent decline for men commencing in 1991. From 2005 to 2009, death rates decreased by 2.8% per year in men and by 1.0% per year in women.Risk factorsTobacco use, second hand smoke, and other risk factorsThe most important risk factor for lung cancer (as for many other cancers) is tobacco use.[2,3] Cigarette smoking has been definitively established by epidemiologic and preclinical animal experimental data as the primary cause of lung cancer. This causative link has been widely recognized since the 1960s, when national reports in Great Britain and the United
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer
Small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found within the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when breathing in and take out carbon dioxide when breathing out. Each lung has sections called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. The right lung,which is slightly ...
Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about lung cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 30 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Stages IA and IB NSCLC TreatmentAdded text to state that a substantial number of patients are ineligible for standard surgical resection because of comorbid conditions that are associated with unacceptably high perioperative risk; observation and radiation therapy may be considered for these patients (cited McGarry et al., Lanni et al., and Grutterset al. as reference 22, reference 23, and reference 24, respectively). Also added text to state that nonrandomized observation studies comparing treatment outcomes associated with resection, radiation therapy, and observation have demonstrated shorter survival times and higher mortality for patients treated with observation only, there are a number of approaches to delivery of radiation therapy, and there are limited reliable data from comparative
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung CancerTreatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer may include the following:Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the chest. Radiation therapy to the brain may later be given to patients with complete responses.Combination chemotherapy alone for patients who cannot be given radiation therapy.Surgery followed by chemotherapy.Surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.Radiation therapy to the brain may be given to patients who have had a complete response, to prevent the spread of cancer to the brain.Clinical trials of new chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation treatments.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for NSCLC
BackgroundIn NSCLC, the determination of stage is important in terms of therapeutic and prognostic implications. Careful initial diagnostic evaluation to define the location and to determine the extent of primary and metastatic tumor involvement is critical for the appropriate care of patients. In general, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory findings, or perceived risk of distant metastasis lead to an evaluation for distant metastatic disease. Additional tests such as bone scans and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain may be performed if initial assessments suggest metastases or if patients with stage III disease are under consideration for aggressive local and combined modality treatments.Stage has a critical role in the selection of therapy. The stage of disease is based on a combination of clinical factors and pathological factors. The distinction
Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062832-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Lung Cancer Screening
Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment
Prognosis in this disease is difficult to assess consistently because there is great variability in the time before diagnosis and the rate of disease progression. In large retrospective series of pleural mesothelioma patients,important prognostic factors were found to be:[ 1,2 ] Stage. Age. Performance status. Histology. Various surgical procedures may be possible in selected patients,...
Lung Cancer Resources
Find out from WebMD where to find more information and support for lung cancer patients and their loved ones.