Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages IIA and IIB NSCLC Treatment
Standard Treatment Options for Stages IIA and IIB NSCLCStandard treatment options for stages IIA NSCLC and IIB NSCLC include the following:Surgery.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Adjuvant chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.Adjuvant radiation therapy has not been show to improve outcomes in patients with stages II NSCLC.SurgerySurgery is the treatment of choice for patients with stage II NSCLC. A lobectomy, pneumonectomy, or segmental resection, wedge resection, or sleeve resection may be performed as appropriate. Careful preoperative assessment of the patient's overall medical condition, especially the patient's pulmonary reserve, is critical in considering the benefits of surgery. Despite the immediate and age-related postoperative mortality rate, a 5% to 8% mortality rate with pneumonectomy or a 3% to 5% mortality rate with lobectomy can be expected. Evidence (surgery):The Cochrane Collaboration group reviewed 11 randomized trials with a total of
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV NSCLC Treatment
Forty percent of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have stage IV disease. Treatment goals are to prolong survival and control disease-related symptoms. Treatment options include cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted agents. Factors influencing treatment selection include comorbidity, performance status (PS), histology, and molecular genetic features of the cancer. Radiation therapy and surgery are generally used in selective cases for symptom palliation.Standard Treatment Options for Stage IV NSCLCStandard treatment options for stage IV NSCLC include the following:Cytotoxic combination chemotherapy (first line) with platinum (cisplatin or carboplatin) and paclitaxel, gemcitabine, docetaxel, vinorelbine, irinotecan, and pemetrexed. Factors influencing treatment.Histology.Age versus comorbidity.PS.Combination chemotherapy with
Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung.The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body as you breathe in. They release carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body's cells, as you breathe out. Each lung has sections called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. The right lung is slightly larger, and has three lobes. A thin membrane called the pleura surrounds the lungs. Two tubes called bronchi lead from the trachea (windpipe) to the right and left lungs. The bronchi are sometimes also involved in lung cancer. Tiny air sacs called alveoli and small tubes called bronchioles make up the inside of the lungs. Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their lobes and airways. Lymph nodes and the diaphragm are also shown. Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and passes through the thin membranes of the alveoli and into the bloodstream (see inset).There are two
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Treatment of recurrent non-small cell lung cancer may include the following:External radiation therapy as palliative therapy, to relieve pain and other symptoms and improve the quality of life.Chemotherapy.Targeted therapy with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.Laser therapy or internal radiation therapy using an endoscope.Radiosurgery (for certain patients who cannot have surgery).Surgery to remove a very small amount of cancer that has spread to the brain.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent non-small cell lung cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Small Cell Lung Cancer
Before initiating treatment of a patient with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an experienced lung cancer pathologist should review the pathologic material.Pathologic ClassificationThe current classification of subtypes of SCLC includes the following:Small cell carcinoma.Combined small cell carcinoma (i.e., SCLC combined with neoplastic squamous and/or glandular components).SCLC arising from neuroendocrine cells forms one extreme of the spectrum of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung.Neuroendocrine tumors include the following:Low-grade typical carcinoid.Intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid.High-grade neuroendocrine tumors including large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and SCLC.Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and epidemiology, these tumors are classified separately in the World Health Organization (WHO) revised classification. The variant form of SCLC called mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma was not retained in the revised WHO classification.
Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Lung Cancer Prevention
Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent lung cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following are risk factors for lung cancer:Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking Tobacco smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking all increase the risk of lung cancer. Tobacco smoking causes about 9 out of 10 cases of lung cancer in men and about 8 out of 10 cases of lung cancer in women.Studies have shown that smoking low tar or low nicotine cigarettes does not lower the risk of lung cancer. Studies also show that the risk of lung cancer from smoking cigarettes increases with the
Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
NSCLC is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The most common types of NSCLC are squamous cell carcinoma,large cell carcinoma,and adenocarcinoma,but there are several other types that occur less frequently,and all types can occur in unusual histologic variants. Although NSCLCs are associated with cigarette smoke,adenocarcinomas may be found in ...
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 14 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Small Cell Lung Cancer
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been shown to improve survival for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC).ChemotherapyChemotherapy improves the survival of patients with limited-stage disease (LD) or extensive-stage disease (ED), but it is curative in only a minority of patients.[1,2] Because patients with SCLC tend to develop distant metastases, localized forms of treatment, such as surgical resection or radiation therapy, rarely produce long-term survival. With incorporation of current chemotherapy regimens into the treatment program, however, survival is prolonged, with at least a fourfold to fivefold improvement in median survival compared with patients who are given no therapy. The combination of platinum and etoposide is the most widely used standard chemotherapeutic regimen.[4,5,6][Level of evidence: 1iiA] No consistent survival benefit has resulted from platinum versus nonplatinum combinations, increased dose intensity or dose density, altered mode of