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Lung Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Lung Cancer

  1. Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Before initiating treatment of a patient with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an experienced lung cancer pathologist should review the pathologic material.Pathologic ClassificationThe current classification of subtypes of SCLC includes the following:[1]Small cell carcinoma.Combined small cell carcinoma (i.e., SCLC combined with neoplastic squamous and/or glandular components).SCLC arising from neuroendocrine cells forms one extreme of the spectrum of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung.Neuroendocrine tumors include the following:Low-grade typical carcinoid.Intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid.High-grade neuroendocrine tumors including large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and SCLC.Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and epidemiology, these tumors are classified separately in the World Health Organization (WHO) revised classification. The variant form of SCLC called mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma was not retained in the revised WHO classification.

  2. Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)Standard treatment options for patients with extensive-stage SCLC include the following:Combination chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.Prophylactic cranial irradiation.Combination chemotherapyChemotherapy for patients with extensive-stage disease (ED) SCLC is commonly given as a two-drug combination of platinum and etoposide in doses associated with at least moderate toxic effects (as in limited-stage [LD] SCLC).[1] Cisplatin is associated with significant toxic effects and requires fluid hydration, which can be problematic in patients with cardiovascular disease. Carboplatin is active in SCLC, is dosed according to renal function, and is associated with less nonhematological toxic effects.Other regimens appear to produce similar survival outcomes but have been studied less extensively or are in less common use.Table 2. . Combination Chemotherapy For Extensive-Stage Small Cell

  3. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV NSCLC Treatment

    Forty percent of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have stage IV disease. Treatment goals are to prolong survival and control disease-related symptoms. Treatment options include cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted agents. Factors influencing treatment selection include comorbidity, performance status (PS), histology, and molecular genetic features of the cancer. Radiation therapy and surgery are generally used in selective cases for symptom palliation.Standard Treatment Options for Stage IV NSCLCStandard treatment options for stage IV NSCLC include the following:Cytotoxic combination chemotherapy (first line) with platinum (cisplatin or carboplatin) and paclitaxel, gemcitabine, docetaxel, vinorelbine, irinotecan, and pemetrexed. Factors influencing treatment.Histology.Age versus comorbidity.PS.Combination chemotherapy with

  4. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Occult Non-Small Cell Lung CancerTreatment of occult non-small cell lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Occult tumors are often found at an early stage (the tumor is in the lung only) and sometimes can be cured by surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with occult non-small cell lung cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)Treatment of stage 0 may include the following:Surgery (wedge resection or segmental

  5. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.Different types of treatments are available for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Nine types of standard treatment are used:Surgery Four types of surgery are used to treat lung cancer:Wedge resection: Surgery to remove a tumor and some of the normal tissue around it. When a slightly larger amount of tissue is taken, it is called a segmental resection.Wedge

  6. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IIIA NSCLC Treatment

    Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC are a heterogenous group. Patients may have metastases to ipsilateral mediastinal nodes, potentially resectable T3 tumors invading chest wall, or mediastinal involvement with metastases to peribronchial or hilar lymph nodes (N1). Presentations of disease range from resectable tumors with microscopic metastases to lymph nodes to unresectable, bulky disease involving multiple nodal stations.Prognosis:Patients with clinical stage IIIA-N2 disease have a 5-year overall survival rate of 10% to 15%; however, patients with bulky mediastinal involvement (i.e., visible on chest radiography) have a 5-year survival rate of 2% to 5%. Depending on clinical circumstances, the principal forms of treatment that are considered for patients with stage IIIA NSCLC are radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and combinations of these modalities. Treatment options vary according to the location of the tumor and

  7. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (11 / 02 / 2012)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

  8. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    After lung cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the lungs or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the lungs or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Some of the tests used to diagnose non-small cell lung cancer are also used to stage the disease. (See the General Information section.) Other tests and procedures that may be used in the staging process include the following:MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the brain. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the brain

  9. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  10. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

    BackgroundIncidence and mortalityLung cancer has a tremendous impact on the health of the American public, with an estimated 228,190 new cases and 159,480 deaths predicted in 2013 in men and women combined.[1] Lung cancer causes more deaths per year in the United States than the next four leading causes of cancer death combined. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates increased markedly throughout most of the last century, first in men and then in women. The trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality rates have closely mirrored historical patterns of smoking prevalence, after accounting for an appropriate latency period. Because of historical differences in smoking prevalence between men and women, lung cancer rates in men have been consistently declining since 1990. The incidence rate in men declined from a high of 102.1 cases per 100,000 men in 1984 to 82.7 cases per 100,000 men in 2009. Consistent declines in women have not been seen.[1,2]

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