Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung CancerTreatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer may include the following:Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the chest. Radiation therapy to the brain may later be given to patients with complete responses.Combination chemotherapy alone for patients who cannot be given radiation therapy.Surgery followed by chemotherapy.Surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.Radiation therapy to the brain may be given to patients who have had a complete response, to prevent the spread of cancer to the brain.Clinical trials of new chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation treatments.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 30 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.
Lung Cancer Screening - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment
Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)Standard treatment options for patients with extensive-stage SCLC include the following:Combination chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.Prophylactic cranial irradiation.Combination chemotherapyChemotherapy for patients with extensive-stage disease (ED) SCLC is commonly given as a two-drug combination of platinum and etoposide in doses associated with at least moderate toxic effects (as in limited-stage [LD] SCLC). Cisplatin is associated with significant toxic effects and requires fluid hydration, which can be problematic in patients with cardiovascular disease. Carboplatin is active in SCLC, is dosed according to renal function, and is associated with less nonhematological toxic effects.Other regimens appear to produce similar survival outcomes but have been studied less extensively or are in less common use.Table 2. . Combination Chemotherapy For Extensive-Stage Small Cell
Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for NSCLC
In NSCLC, results of standard treatment are poor except for the most localized cancers. All newly diagnosed patients with NSCLC are potential candidates for studies evaluating new forms of treatment. Surgery is the most potentially curative therapeutic option for this disease. Postoperative chemotherapy may provide an additional benefit to patients with resected NSCLC. Radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy can produce a cure in a small number of patients and can provide palliation in most patients. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) may reduce the incidence of brain metastases, but there is no evidence of a survival benefit and the effect of PCI on quality of life is not known.[1,2] In patients with advanced-stage disease, chemotherapy or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors offer modest improvements in median survival, though overall survival is poor.[3,4]Chemotherapy has produced short-term improvement in disease-related symptoms in patients with
Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Small Cell Lung Cancer
Before initiating treatment of a patient with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an experienced lung cancer pathologist should review the pathologic material.Pathologic ClassificationThe current classification of subtypes of SCLC includes the following:Small cell carcinoma.Combined small cell carcinoma (i.e., SCLC combined with neoplastic squamous and/or glandular components).SCLC arising from neuroendocrine cells forms one extreme of the spectrum of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung.Neuroendocrine tumors include the following:Low-grade typical carcinoid.Intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid.High-grade neuroendocrine tumors including large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and SCLC.Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and epidemiology, these tumors are classified separately in the World Health Organization (WHO) revised classification. The variant form of SCLC called mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma was not retained in the revised WHO classification.
Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung.The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs inside the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when breathing in and send carbon dioxide out of the body when breathing out. Each lung has sections called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. The right lung, which is slightly larger, has three. A thin membrane called the pleura surrounds the lungs. Two tubes called bronchi lead from the trachea (windpipe) to the right and left lungs. The bronchi are sometimes involved in lung cancer. Small tubes called bronchioles and tiny air sacs called alveoli make up the inside of the lungs. Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their lobes and airways. Lymph nodes and the diaphragm are also shown. Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and passes through the thin membranes of the alveoli and into the bloodstream (see inset).There are two types of lung cancer: small
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment
Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)Standard treatment options for patients with limited-stage SCLC include the following:Chemotherapy and radiation therapy.Combination chemotherapy alone.Surgery followed by chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.Prophylactic cranial irradiation.Chemotherapy and radiation therapyCombined-modality treatment with etoposide and cisplatin with thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) is the most widely used treatment for patients with limited-stage disease (LD) SCLC.Evidence (combined modality treatment):Survival. The following results have been reported in clinical trials:Mature results of prospective randomized trials suggest that combined-modality therapy produces a modest but significant improvement in survival of 5% at 3 years compared with chemotherapy alone.[1,2,3][Level of evidence: 1iiA]Clinical trials have consistently achieved median survivals of 18 to 24 months and 40% to 50% 2-year survival
Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages IA and IB NSCLC Treatment
Standard Treatment Options for Stages IA and IB NSCLCStandard treatment options for stage IA NSCLC and IB NSCLC include the following:Surgery.Radiation therapy.Chemotherapy and radiation therapy have not been shown to improve outcomes in stage I NSCLC that has been completely resected.SurgerySurgery is the treatment of choice for patients with stage I NSCLC. A lobectomy or segmental, wedge, or sleeve resection may be performed as appropriate. Patients with impaired pulmonary function are candidates for segmental or wedge resection of the primary tumor. Careful preoperative assessment of the patient's overall medical condition, especially the patient's pulmonary reserve, is critical in considering the benefits of surgery. The immediate postoperative mortality rate is age related, but a 3% to 5% mortality rate with lobectomy can be expected.Evidence (surgery):The Lung Cancer Study Group conducted a randomized study (LCSG-821) that compared lobectomy