Intracavitary therapy. Intrapleural or intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., cisplatin, mitomycin, and cytarabine) has been reported to produce transient reduction in the size of tumor masses and temporary control of effusions in small clinical studies.[14,15,16] Additional studies are needed to define the role of intracavitary therapy.
A large, randomized study from the United Kingdom (BTS-MRC-MS01) compared active symptom control (ASC) with the chemotherapy regimens of mitomycin C, vinblastine, and cisplatin (MVP) or single-agent vinorelbine. The trial was sized to detect a difference of 9 to 12 months in median survival with a total of 840 patients. As a result of slow accrual, the two chemotherapy regimens were collapsed, and the statistical plan revised. In a total of 409 patients, no significant difference in survival was detected between ASC and chemotherapy.[Level of evidence: 1iiA]
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. About 85% to 90% of people with lung cancer have NSCLC.
The other major type of lung cancer is called small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).
Many phase II trials of chemotherapy have been reported.[6,7,9] The safety and efficacy of pemetrexed, an antifolate, and cisplatin in chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant mesothelioma who were not eligible for curative surgery was demonstrated in a randomized phase III trial.[Level of evidence: 1iiA] This trial compared pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 on day 1) with cisplatin alone (75 mg/m2 on day 1 intravenously every 21 days). With a total of 456 enrolled patients in the trial, 226 patients received pemetrexed plus cisplatin, 222 patients received cisplatin alone, and 8 patients did not receive therapy. After 117 patients had enrolled, folic acid and vitamin B12 were added to reduce toxic effects. Folic acid (350–1,000 µg orally) was given daily, beginning 1 to 3 weeks before the first chemotherapy dose and continuing daily until 1 to 3 weeks after treatment ended. A vitamin B12 injection (1,000 µg intramuscularly) was administered 1 to 3 weeks before the first chemotherapy dose and was repeated approximately every 9 weeks until treatment ended. Dexamethasone (4 mg) or an equivalent corticosteroid was administered orally twice daily for skin rash prophylaxis to all patients 1 day before, on the day of, and 1 day after each pemetrexed dose.
In an analysis of all patients who were randomly assigned and treated, the combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin was associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival compared with cisplatin alone; the median survivals were 12.1 versus 9.3 months, respectively (P = .020). The hazard ratio for death of patients in the pemetrexed plus cisplatin arm versus those in the control arm was 0.77. Median time-to-progression was significantly longer in the pemetrexed plus cisplatin arm (5.7 months vs. 3.9 months, P = .001). This superiority in the combination arm was also demonstrated in the vitamin-supplemented subgroup. The median survivals were 13.3 and 10.0 months in the combination group and cisplatin alone group, respectively (P = .051). The principal adverse effects of the pemetrexed plus cisplatin regimen were myelosuppression, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. Most grade 3 to 4 adverse effects were significantly reduced by vitamin supplementation without any decrease in efficacy.