Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer
Improved long-term survival in patients with LD has been shown with combined-modality therapy.[9,11][Level of evidence: 1iiA] Although long-term survivors have been reported among patients who received either surgery or chemotherapy alone, chemotherapy combined with thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) is considered the standard of care. Adding TRT increases absolute survival by approximately 5% over chemotherapy alone.[11,13] The optimal timing of TRT relative to chemotherapy has been evaluated in multiple trials and meta-analyses with the weight of evidence suggesting a small benefit to early TRT.[1,14,15][Level of evidence: 1iiA]
In patients with ED, median survival of 6 to 12 months is reported with currently available therapy, but long-term disease-free survival is rare.
Prophylactic cranial radiation prevents central nervous system recurrence and can improve survival in patients who have had a complete response to chemoradiation.[16,17][Level of evidence: 1iiA]
All patients with this type of cancer may appropriately be considered for inclusion in clinical trials at the time of diagnosis. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
- Murray N, Coy P, Pater JL, et al.: Importance of timing for thoracic irradiation in the combined modality treatment of limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 11 (2): 336-44, 1993.
- Govindan R, Page N, Morgensztern D, et al.: Changing epidemiology of small-cell lung cancer in the United States over the last 30 years: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiologic, and end results database. J Clin Oncol 24 (28): 4539-44, 2006.
- American Cancer Society.: Cancer Facts and Figures 2013. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2013. Available online. Last accessed September 5, 2013.
- Travis WD, Colby TV, Corrin B, et al.: Histological typing of lung and pleural tumours. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1999.
- Johnson BE, Grayson J, Makuch RW, et al.: Ten-year survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer treated with combination chemotherapy with or without irradiation. J Clin Oncol 8 (3): 396-401, 1990.
- Fry WA, Menck HR, Winchester DP: The National Cancer Data Base report on lung cancer. Cancer 77 (9): 1947-55, 1996.
- Lassen U, Osterlind K, Hansen M, et al.: Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer: posttreatment characteristics in patients surviving 5 to 18+ years--an analysis of 1,714 consecutive patients. J Clin Oncol 13 (5): 1215-20, 1995.
- Turrisi AT 3rd, Kim K, Blum R, et al.: Twice-daily compared with once-daily thoracic radiotherapy in limited small-cell lung cancer treated concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide. N Engl J Med 340 (4): 265-71, 1999.
- Jänne PA, Freidlin B, Saxman S, et al.: Twenty-five years of clinical research for patients with limited-stage small cell lung carcinoma in North America. Cancer 95 (7): 1528-38, 2002.
- Videtic GM, Stitt LW, Dar AR, et al.: Continued cigarette smoking by patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer is associated with decreased survival. J Clin Oncol 21 (8): 1544-9, 2003.
- Pignon JP, Arriagada R, Ihde DC, et al.: A meta-analysis of thoracic radiotherapy for small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 327 (23): 1618-24, 1992.
- Chandra V, Allen MS, Nichols FC 3rd, et al.: The role of pulmonary resection in small cell lung cancer. Mayo Clin Proc 81 (5): 619-24, 2006.
- Warde P, Payne D: Does thoracic irradiation improve survival and local control in limited-stage small-cell carcinoma of the lung? A meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 10 (6): 890-5, 1992.
- Perry MC, Eaton WL, Propert KJ, et al.: Chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy in limited small-cell carcinoma of the lung. N Engl J Med 316 (15): 912-8, 1987.
- Takada M, Fukuoka M, Kawahara M, et al.: Phase III study of concurrent versus sequential thoracic radiotherapy in combination with cisplatin and etoposide for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: results of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study 9104. J Clin Oncol 20 (14): 3054-60, 2002.
- Aupérin A, Arriagada R, Pignon JP, et al.: Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Overview Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 341 (7): 476-84, 1999.
- Slotman B, Faivre-Finn C, Kramer G, et al.: Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 357 (7): 664-72, 2007.