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    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IIIA NSCLC Treatment

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    Evidence (adjuvant chemotherapy):

    Evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials indicates that when stage IIIA NSCLC is encountered unexpectedly at surgery, chemotherapy given after complete resection improves survival.

    Several randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses have evaluated the use of postoperative chemotherapy in patients with stage I, II, and IIIA NSCLC.[6,7,8,9,10,11,12]

    1. Data on individual patient outcomes were collected and pooled into a meta-analysis from the five largest trials (4,584 patients) that were conducted after 1995 of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with completely resected NSCLC.[6]
      1. With a median follow-up time of 5.2 years, the overall HR of death was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.96; P = .005), corresponding to a 5-year absolute benefit of 5.4% from chemotherapy.
      2. The effect of chemotherapy did not vary significantly (test for interaction, P = .11) with the associated drugs, including vinorelbine (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.91), etoposide or vinca alkaloid (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.80-1.07), or other drugs (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.84-1.13).
      3. The benefit varied with stage (HR for stage IIIA, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.94).
      4. The greater effect on survival observed with the doublet of cisplatin plus vinorelbine compared with other regimens should be interpreted with caution as the total dose of cisplatin received was significantly higher in patients treated with vinorelbine.
    2. Two trials (FRE-IALT and ANITA) reported significant OS benefits associated with postoperative chemotherapy in stage IIIA disease.[4,8]
      1. For the subgroup of stage IIIA patients in ANITA (n = 325), the HR was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53-0.90), and the result for the FRE-IALT trial (n = 728) was HR, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.95).
      2. Chemotherapy effect was higher in patients with a better performance status (PS).
      3. There was no interaction between the chemotherapy effect and any of the following:
        • Sex.
        • Age.
        • Histology.
        • Type of surgery.
        • Planned radiation therapy.
        • Planned total dose of cisplatin.
    3. In a retrospective analysis of a phase III trial of postoperative cisplatin and vinorelbine, patients older than 65 years were found to benefit from treatment.[13]
      1. Chemotherapy significantly prolonged OS for elderly patients (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.98; P = .04).
      2. There were no significant differences in toxic effects, hospitalization, or treatment-related death by age group, although elderly patients received less treatment.
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