When you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, shortness of breath may be a daily and unwelcome fact of life. Perhaps your doctor is urging you to enter a pulmonary rehabilitation program to help you manage your disease better. Or maybe you’ve heard about various breathing techniques, such as pursed lip breathing or diaphragmatic breathing.
What can help you to cope with breathlessness and improve your quality of life? Two lung experts spoke to WebMD about useful measures that you can take.
The GOLD classifications are the main method doctors use to describe the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
GOLD is short for the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, a collaboration between the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization.
Diaphragmatic Breathing: New Thinking on an Old Standby
Many COPD patients have been taught to do diaphragmatic breathing by using one's abdominal muscles to empty the lungs. Patients lie on their backs, place their hands on their abdomens and practice breathing with their diaphragms.
But experts told WebMD that no evidence supports the value of diaphragmatic breathing. Once patients stop doing the exercise, they revert back to their usual way of breathing.
"Trying to teach someone to diaphragmatic-breathe or breathe with their belly probably doesn't work because your mind will take you back to a way that's less taxing for your abdominal muscles," says Gerard Criner, MD, a pulmonologist and professor of medicine at Temple University.
Pursed Lip Breathing: A Technique That Helps
However, another common technique, pursed lip breathing, has more merit, Criner says. The technique can ease shortness of breath.
Breathe in for two seconds through your nose, keeping your mouth closed.
Breathe out for four seconds through pursed lips. If this is too long for you, simply breathe out twice as long as you breathe in.
Pursed-lip breathing can be particularly useful to COPD patients who have emphysema, a common scenario.
"People with emphysema have very collapsible airways," says Norman H. Edelman, MD, chief medical officer at the American Lung Association and professor of preventive medicine and internal medicine at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.
"If you teach them to breathe in normally but breathe out through a narrow orifice of their lips, they keep the pressure up in their airways and it tends to prevent the large airways from collapsing."