"Fibrosis" is a term used to refer to scarring, so pulmonary fibrosis means scarring in the lungs. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by many conditions, including chronic inflammatory processes (like sarcoidosis or Wegener's granulomatosis), infections, environmental agents (asbestos, silica, exposure to certain gases), exposure to ionizing radiation (such as radiation therapy to treat tumors of the chest), chronic conditions (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis), and certain drugs, such as nitrofurantoin...
Flexible bronchoscopy. Bronchoscopy is the most common interventional pulmonology procedure. During bronchoscopy, a doctor advances a flexible endoscope (bronchoscope) through a person's mouth or nose into the windpipe. The doctor advances the bronchoscope through the airways in each lung, checking for problems. Images from inside the lung are displayed on a video screen.
The bronchoscope has a channel at its tip, through which a doctor can pass small tools. Using these tools, the doctor can perform several other interventional pulmonology procedures.
Bronchoalveolar lavage. Bronchoalveolar lavage is performed during bronchoscopy. Sterile water is injected through the bronchoscope into a segment of the lung. The fluid is then suctioned back and sent for tests. Bronchoalveolar lavage can help diagnose infection, cancer, bleeding, and other conditions.
Biopsy of lung or lymph node. During bronchoscopy, a doctor may collect a small piece of tissue from either the lung or a nearby lymph node. The interventional pulmonologist can use a needle or forceps advanced through the bronchoscope to get a sample of tissue. Biopsies can detect cancer, infection, sarcoidosis, and other conditions.
For people with lung cancer or other cancers, interventional pulmonology biopsies can often accurately identify spread of cancer into lymph nodes. This can prevent unnecessary surgery or help determine the best choice for treatment.
Airway stent (bronchial stent). Advanced cancer or certain other conditions can constrict or compress an airway tube (bronchus). If the bronchus becomes blocked, difficulty breathing, cough, and pneumonia can result.
Using a bronchoscope, a doctor can advance a wire mesh stent into a narrowed airway. Expanding the stent can open a bronchus and relieve symptoms caused by the constriction.
Balloon bronchoplasty. A doctor advances a deflated balloon into a section of abnormally narrowed airway. By inflating the balloon with water, the airway is expanded, potentially relieving symptoms. Balloon bronchoplasty may be performed prior to airway stent placement to help expand a bronchus.