Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is a single abnormality in the lung that could be harmless or could be an early sign of cancer. Find out more from WebMD about causes, diagnosis, and treatment of SPN.
Chemical pneumonia is an unusual type of lung irritation caused by poisons or toxins. Find out more.
Pneumonia can have several causes, including a variety of viruses. Learn more about viral pneumonia.
A coronavirus is a kind of common virus that causes an infection in your nose, sinuses, or upper throat. Most coronaviruses are not dangerous.
Nebulizer for COPD Treatment - Topic Overview
What is a nebulizer?A nebulizer is a tool that delivers liquid medicine as a fine mist. You breathe in the medicine through a mouthpiece or face mask. This sends the medicine directly to your airways and lungs. Depending on your needs, you can get a small, portable nebulizer or one that sits on a table or counter. A portable unit can run on rechargeable batteries or plug into a car or wall electrical outlet. A tabletop unit plugs into a wall outlet. All nebulizers have parts that need to be washed and air-dried each time you use them. What is it used for?A nebulizer may be used to treat breathing problems. These include asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). A nebulizer can make inhaling medicines easier. It can be very helpful if it is hard for you to breathe or to use an inhaler. How do you use a nebulizer?Follow the directions for use and cleaning that come with your nebulizer. For a tabletop unit:Make sure that the air compressor is steady and will not tip, and
Nasal Potential Difference Test for Cystic Fibrosis - Topic Overview
The nasal potential difference test (nasal PD test) measures how well salts (sodium and chloride) flow across the mucous membranes in the nose. This type of test can be helpful when the results of a sweat test or a genetic test are not clear. In this test, electrodes are placed inside the nose and liquids are run through the nose. There is also a needle placed in the forearm that connects to a machine. Because this test can be uncomfortable, your child may need medicine to help him or her relax before having the test. This test is not used very often because it can be difficult to do and because it is not available in many places.
How Cystic Fibrosis Affects Breathing and the Lungs - Topic Overview
Normal lung and respiratory functionThe breathing tubes, or bronchi, leading to the air sacs (alveoli) are lined with cells that produce mucus. Normally, the cells produce a thin, runny mucus that coats the surface of the lungs.Foreign particles, such as dust and germs, constantly enter the lungs and become trapped in the mucus. Tiny hairs called cilia on the surface of the breathing tubes sweep the mucus and foreign particles upward into the larger air passages and then up to the throat where they can be swallowed or coughed up.Effects of cystic fibrosis on lung and respiratory functionCystic fibrosis causes the mucus that coats the breathing tubes to become so thick and sticky that the cilia are unable to sweep the germs and other particles up and out of the lungs. The trapped bacteria lead to frequent, serious infections and permanent lung damage.In response to infections, the body's immune system sends white blood cells to the lungs to attempt to destroy the infection. White blood
How Cystic Fibrosis Affects the Bones - Topic Overview
Many people who have cystic fibrosis have low bone mineral density, because they have problems absorbing vitamin D and calcium, which are necessary for strong and healthy bones. Low bone mineral density can make a person who has cystic fibrosis more likely to have bone fractures or to develop osteopenia or osteoporosis in adulthood.Routine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) tests can check the density and strength of your bones. Spending small amounts of time in the sun, exercising, taking vitamins, and eating nutritious foods can help prevent bone problems. People who have cystic fibrosis may also have painful or swollen joints (arthralgia or arthritis) from time to time. Often these joint problems do not last more than a week and any pain can usually be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen.
How Cystic Fibrosis Affects Digestion and the Pancreas - Topic Overview
Cystic fibrosis often affects the pancreas and digestive system because the mucus in these areas becomes thick and sticky. If this occurs, the mucus blocks normal digestive function as well as harbors infection.The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients from the food, and ridding the body of waste products. The pancreas is an organ that is located in the upper abdomen, behind the stomach and close to the spine. It produces digestive enzymes, which travel to the intestines and break down (digest) food so that nutrients can be absorbed by the body. Cystic fibrosis and digestionIn cystic fibrosis, mucus clogs the pancreas, and digestive enzymes are not able to get to the intestine. So food is not properly digested, particularly fats and proteins. A related symptom is large, greasy, smelly stools. Lack of nutrition prevents normal growth and development in babies and children. Unhealthy weight loss and difficulty gaining or maintaining weight are
How Cystic Fibrosis Affects the Reproductive System - Topic Overview
In men, cystic fibrosis may affect the development of the vas deferens, which is the tube that carries sperm. The tube can also become blocked with mucus. Sperm are still made, but they are not released during ejaculation. This results in an inability to father children (infertility).Although cystic fibrosis does not affect the development of the reproductive organs in women, thick mucus makes fertilization of the egg difficult. But most women who have this disease can become pregnant. Before a woman who has been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis becomes pregnant, she should discuss with her doctor the risks, what to expect, and other issues. Many women who have cystic fibrosis have successful pregnancies, but they need close monitoring because of their nutritional status and the extra strain on their lungs.If you have cystic fibrosis and are thinking about getting pregnant, be sure to talk openly with your doctor about it. You may also want to consider genetic testing for you and your