The nasal potential difference test (nasal PD test) measures how well salts (sodium and chloride) flow across the mucous membranes in the nose. This type of test can be helpful when the results of a sweat test or a genetic test are not clear. In this test, electrodes are placed inside the nose and liquids are run through the nose. There is also a needle placed in the forearm that connects to a machine. Because this test can be uncomfortable, your child may need medicine to help him or her relax before having the test. This test is not used very often because it can be difficult to do and because it is not available in many places.
Many people who have cystic fibrosis have low bone mineral density, because they have problems absorbing vitamin D and calcium, which are necessary for strong and healthy bones. Low bone mineral density can make a person who has cystic fibrosis more likely to have bone fractures or to develop osteopenia or osteoporosis in adulthood.Routine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) tests can check the density and strength of your bones. Spending small amounts of time in the sun, exercising, taking vitamins, and eating nutritious foods can help prevent bone problems. People who have cystic fibrosis may also have painful or swollen joints (arthralgia or arthritis) from time to time. Often these joint problems do not last more than a week and any pain can usually be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen.
Is this topic for you?This topic provides information about pleurisy, which usually results in chest pain. If you have chest pain that concerns you and that your doctor does not know about, see the topic Chest Pain.What is pleurisy?Pleurisy is swelling (inflammation) of the thin layers of tissue (pleura) covering the lungs and the chest wall. The outer layer of the pleura lines the inside of the .
When you see your doctor with chest pain from pleurisy, he or she will check:Your temperature. If pleurisy is caused by a viral infection, typical viral symptoms of fever, headache, and muscle aches may be present.Your breathing. You may be taking rapid and shallow breaths to avoid the chest pain of pleurisy.Whether the pain varies depending on your actions. The chest pain of pleurisy is usually worse with coughing, sneezing, or during sudden movements. It may ease when you hold your breath or apply pressure to the painful area.Where the pain is. The chest pain of pleurisy may be on only one side of the chest or may extend to a shoulder or the belly. Your doctor also will listen to your chest for:Dull thuds heard when the chest is tapped (percussion dullness).Sounds made when the two layers of the pleura rub together (pleural friction rub).