A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi that are infecting the lungs or breathing passages. Sputum is a thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the airways leading to the lungs.
Sputum cytology examines a sample of sputum (mucus) under a microscope to determine whether abnormal cells are present. Sputum is not the same as saliva. Sputum is produced in the lungs and in the airways leading to the lungs.
A COPD exacerbation can be life threatening and can have a long-term effect on lung function and the worsening of COPD symptoms. Early response to a COPD exacerbation is crucial for minimizing those risks. WebMD lists 10 signs that an exacerbation is imminent. Find out which COPD symptoms require immediate attention.
Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include those you can control, such as smoking, and others that you cannot control, such as inherited factors (genes).Risk factors you can controlTobacco smoking is the most important risk factor for COPD. In comparison, other risk factors are minor.At least 10% to 15% of all cigarette smokers develop COPD with symptoms; some studies ..