Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever - Topic Overview
What are Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever?
Legionnaires' disease is a type of
pneumonia. It is caused by
bacteria called Legionella pneumophila. The bacteria got its name in 1976, when a group of people attending an American Legion convention became infected. Although it was present before 1976, Legionnaires' disease is being diagnosed more often now as doctors look for Legionella bacteria in people who have pneumonia. You can get Legionnaire's disease at any time of the year, but more cases are usually found in the summer and early fall. While Legionnaires' disease can be very serious, most cases can be treated successfully.
The Legionella pneumophila bacteria can
also cause a less severe, flu-like condition known as Pontiac fever.
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People usually get Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever when they breathe in a mist or vapor (small droplets of water in the air) that contains the bacteria. One example might be from breathing in the steam from a whirlpool spa that has not been properly cleaned and disinfected. Other sources include fountains and water sources in hotels, cruise ships, nursing homes, and hospitals.
These diseases aren't contagious. The bacteria are not spread from one person to another person. You can get the diseases again if you are exposed to the bacteria again.
Legionnaires' disease typically affects
people older than 45, especially if they smoke or have a long-term lung
disease such as
asthma.1 People with a weak
immune system are also more likely to get the condition. Despite its being named after infecting a large group of people, Legionnaires' disease usually occurs in single cases, not in
large groups at one time (an outbreak).
Pontiac fever usually occurs in otherwise healthy people.
What are the symptoms?
The most common symptoms of Legionnaires'
Less common symptoms range from muscle aches and headaches to abdominal (belly) pain, shortness of breath, and chest pain.
Legionnaire's disease symptoms usually appear 2 days to 2 weeks after a person is exposed to the bacteria. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.
symptoms include fever and muscle aches. Symptoms usually appear 1 to 2 days after a person is exposed to the bacteria. They usually go away without treatment in a few days.
How are the conditions diagnosed?
Your doctor can
diagnose both Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever by asking about your
past health and by doing a physical exam. If your doctor thinks you have
Legionnaires' disease, he or she will ask about your working conditions, if you have been around any possible source like fountains or hot tubs, and if you have traveled within the past 2 weeks. The doctor will also do
tests. The tests may include a urine test or looking at
mucus from your lungs.