What Is Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis -- or TB, as it’s commonly called -- is a contagious infection that usually attacks the lungs. It can also spread to other parts of the body, like the brain and spine. A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it.
In the 20th century, TB was a leading cause of death in the United States. Today, most cases are cured with antibiotics. But it takes a long time. You have to take meds for at least 6 to 9 months.
How Is It Spread?
Through the air, just like a cold or the flu. When someone who’s sick coughs, sneezes, talks, or laughs, tiny droplets that contain the germs are released. If you breathe in these nasty germs, you get infected.
TB is contagious, but it’s not easy to catch. The germs grow slowly. You usually have to spend a lot of time around a person who has it. That’s why it’s often spread among co-workers, friends, and family members.
Tuberculosis germs don’t thrive on surfaces. You can’t get the disease from shaking hands with someone who has it, or by sharing their food or drink.
How Does Tuberculosis Affect Your Body?
A TB infection doesn’t mean you’ll get sick. There are two forms of the disease:
Latent TB: You have the germs in your body, but your immune system stops them from spreading. They become inactive. That means you don’t have any symptoms and you’re not contagious. But the infection is still alive in your body and can one day become active. To prevent this, doctors will often prescribe antibiotics. Without treatment, 5% to 10% of cases develop into active TB.
Active TB disease: This means the germs multiply and can make you sick. You can spread the disease to others.
What Are the Symptoms of TB?
There aren’t any for latent TB. You’ll need to get a skin or blood test to find out if you’re infected.
But there are usually signs if you have active TB disease. They include:
If you experience any of these symptoms, see your doctor to get tested. Get medical help right away if you have chest pain.