Objective: Assist Patient in Adjusting to Physical and Lifestyle Changes
- Allow patient to express feelings and needs.
- Assess patient's usual coping mechanisms.
- Acknowledge that feelings of denial and anger are normal.
- Explore with patient sources of potential support and community resources.
- Explore possible ways of concealing skin lesions and hair loss.
- Encourage patient to discuss interpersonal and social conflicts that arise.
- Encourage patient to accept help from others, such as counseling or a support group.
Objective: Recognize The Signs and Symptoms of Depression and Initiate a Plan of Care
Approximately 80% of patients with SLE have skin manifestations and often suffer from itching, pain, and disfigurement. The classic sign of SLE is the "butterfly" rash extending over the cheeks (malar area) and bridge of the nose. This rash ranges from a faint blush to a severe eruption with scaling. It is photosensitive, and it may be transitory or fixed. Between 55 and 85% of patients develop this rash at some time in the course of the disease.
Other rashes may occur elsewhere on the face and ears, upper arms, shoulders, chest, and hands. DLE is seen in 15-30% of patients with SLE. Subacute cutaneous LE, seen in about 10% of SLE patients, produces highly photosensitive papules that itch and burn. Skin changes, especially the butterfly rash and subacute cutaneous LE, can be precipitated by sunlight.
Some patients may develop mouth, vaginal, or nasal ulcers. Hair loss (alopecia) occurs in about one-half of SLE patients. Most hair loss is diffuse, but it may be patchy. It can be scarring or nonscarring. Alopecia may also be caused by corticosteroids, infection, or immunosuppressive drugs.
Raynaud's phenomenon (paroxysmal vasospasm of the fingers and toes) frequently occurs in patients with SLE. For most patients, Raynaud's phenomenon is mild. However, some SLE patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon may develop painful skin ulcers or gangrene on the fingers or toes.