Varying levels of pain and discomfort due to skin alterations may occur. Pruritus accompanies many types of skin lesions. Attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon can cause a deep tingling feeling in the hands and feet that can be very uncomfortable. Both pain and itching may affect a patient's ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADL).
Skin alterations in the lupus patient, particularly those of DLE, can be disfiguring. As a result, patients may experience fear of rejection by others, negative feelings about their body, and depression. Changes in lifestyle and social involvement may occur.
- Alteration in skin integrity
Discomfort (pain, itching)
- Alteration in body image
Objective: Minimize Appearance of Lesions
- Document appearance and duration of lesions and rashes.
- Teach patient to minimize direct exposure to UV rays from sun and from fluorescent and halogen light bulbs. (Glass does not provide complete protection from UV rays.)
- Instruct patient to use a sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or greater and wear protective clothing. Patients who are allergic to PABA will need to find a PABA-free sunscreen.
- Provide information on hypoallergenic concealing makeup.
- Instruct patient to avoid topical applications, such as hair dyes and skin creams, and the use of certain drugs that may make her or him more sensitive to the sun.
Objective: Alleviate Discomfort
- For patients with mouth lesions, suggest a soft-food diet, lip balms, and warm saline rinses.
- Instruct patient to take medications that may help to alleviate discomfort and itching as ordered. (The doctor may give the patient intralesional steroid injections.)
- Suggest self-help measures for patients with Raynaud's phenomenon, including: keep warm, particularly in cold weather; use chemical warmers, gloves, socks, hats; avoid air conditioning; use insulated drinking glasses for cold drinks; wear gloves when handling frozen or refrigerated foods; quit smoking; control stress; and exercise as tolerated.
Objective: Help Patients to Cope with Potential Psychological Manifestations
See the nursing interventions dealing with psychological issues under manifestions in this article.
Arthralgia or arthritis is experienced by 95% of SLE patients at some time during the course of the disease. Articular pain is the initial symptom in about one-half of patients eventually diagnosed with SLE. Morning stiffness and joint and muscle aching can also occur. Joint pain may be migratory; it is typically symmetric but is asymmetric in many patients. Joints may become warm and swollen. X rays of the joints usually do not show erosion or destruction of bone.