All potentially cancerous skin growths must be biopsied to confirm a cancer diagnosis. Depending on the suspected type of skin cancer, the biopsy techniques vary slightly but crucially.
Any potential melanoma requires a surgical biopsy, in which the entire growth is removed with a scalpel if possible. A pathologist then studies the sample under a microscope to determine whether cancer cells are present.
If melanomais diagnosed, other tests may be ordered to assess the degree of cancer spread (metastasis)...
But once you've had a skin cancer, she says, you're more likely to have another. If you've had a melanoma, the most serious skin cancer, you're nine times more likely to have a new one.
The key, Chipps says, is to take steps to protect your skin from harmful rays whenever you go outside -- whether you're going to the beach or just to the office.
6 Tips for Outdoor Sun Safety
If you're going to be outdoors for a while, try these tips:
Avoid the sun when it's strongest. That's between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Go out earlier or in the late afternoon.
Go under cover. Covering up with the right clothes may protect you even better than sunscreen. When selecting clothing:
If you can see through the fabric, ultraviolet (UV) rays can get through, too. Pick a tighter weave. Regular clothing has an SPF (sun protection factor) of 6. You need clothing with an SPF of 50 to protect yourself.
Consider shirts and pants made in UV-absorbing fabric, especially if you burn easily.
Complete your outfit with a broad-brimmed hat and sunglasses with UV protection.
Apply sunscreen early and often. If you're in and out of the water or working up a sweat in the garden, you need a water-resistant, broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or more. Find one that's water-resistant for 80 minutes. To protect against cancer-causing UVA rays, look for ingredients like:
"Apply a shot glass-sized amount to your whole body at least 30 minutes before you're in the sun," says Brian Johnson, MD. He's a dermatologic surgeon in Norfolk, VA, and a spokesman for the Skin Cancer Foundation.
If you use a sunscreen spray, apply it until an even sheen appears on all of your exposed skin. Don't spray sunscreen on your face. Spray it in your hands, and then spread it on your face. But be careful where you are when you apply it. Some sunscreen sprays may contain ingredients that can catch fire.